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GROUP 2 REPORT

A research on Climate Change in the Philippines
by

Diana De Mesa

on 22 February 2011

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Transcript of GROUP 2 REPORT

Introduction Climate change is variation of weather patterns, wind, temperature, humidity and precipitation that persists over a long period of time. “statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or its variability persisting for an extended period.” “climate change is variation in the climate which can be attributed to human activities either directly or indirectly...” These human activities would include burning fossil fuels, illegal logging, and excessive smoke belching etc. How do these things and activities contribute to climate change? What could be the main cause of
climate change in the Philippines? What will happen
when the earth gets hot? Description of Methods (1) Are you aware about RA 8749: the Philippine
Clean Air Act of 1999? ;

(2) Do you think that the Act is giving what is
due for the people? and

(3) What can you do about climate change
in particular about air pollution? Climate Change Climate change has many effects, including but not limited to, physical, social and economic effects. Most noticeable of these are the physical impacts of climate change and global warming to the environment. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or IPCC, the observed increase in average global temperature is most likely due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. While scientists have stated that glaciers have been retreating since around 1850 due to increasing global temperatures, the rate that temperatures are increasing now is much higher, and glaciers all over the planet are retreating at an alarming rate. Studies conducted by the IPCC have found that mountain glaciers and snow cover has decreased in both northern and southern hemispheres. This extensive depletion of glaciers and ice caps has contributed to the observed rise in sea level. In 1961, the average sea level was reported to have increased by a rate of 1.8 millimeters per year. But between 1993 and 2003, the IPCC has found that this average has increased to 3.1 millimeters per year. The acidification of the planet’s oceans is also an effect of the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Dissolving carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, in the ocean increases the concentration of hydrogen ion in the water, making the water more acidic. Review of Related Literature Another effect of global warming on the planet is the disappearance and retreat of glaciers. Glaciers are large, persistent bodies of ice that originate on land and flow due to the stress induced by their weight. "Philippines is among the most vulnerable to climate change." The warming of the sea water often associated with episodes of El Niño has caused coral bleaching on vast scales previously unheard of. In Bolinao, the elevated sea surface temperature from 34.1 degrees Celsius to 34.9 degrees Celsius has killed a large number of giant clams. The high sea surface temperature also triggers algal blooms that cause red tide, which kills other organisms such as fish. The further acidification of the ocean has led to a decrease in calcification of corals and mollusks. A Clean Air Act seeks to protect human health and the environment from emissions that pollute ambient, or outdoor, air. As defined by West's Encyclopedia of American Law (2005), it is one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution. “The Clean Air Act is definitely a very important piece of legislation consistent with the constitutional mandate to protect the environment, in this case the air living things breathe, while guaranteeing the protection of the people’s right to live in harmony with nature.” (RA 8749: the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999) Executive Order No. 192, REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8749, or better known as “The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999”, Grants every citizen the right to breathe fresh air and at the same time instructs every local government unit to combat air pollution with such provisions. “It provides a comprehensive air pollution management and control program to achieve and maintain healthy air; such air pollution includes: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR),

Office of the President (OP),

Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC),

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI),

Department of Energy (DOE),

Department of Science and Technology (DOST),

Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB),

Department of Health (DOH),

Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH),

Board of Investment (BOI) and Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA)

Likewise, Non-government organizations such as Greenpeace, Klima, and Sanib Lakas para sa Inang Kalikasan (SALIKA) collaborate in order to fulfill the provisions of the act and at the same time spread awareness. “In spite of the various anti-smoke belching campaigns and programs, buses and utility vehicles emitting visible smoke are a common sight in Metro Manila and other urban centers. Urban smog, smoke-belching buses and industrial smokestacks, these are prominent and visible reminders of the need to manage air quality," the report’s executive summary said. Analysis The Philippine Clean Air Act was created to combat or suppress air pollution and in turn fight climate change. Provisions of the said act target air pollution on hand together with partnerships of several organizations and government agencies. It is noted that the act aims to prevent air pollution rather than control it. Are people aware of the said act in order to exercise its provisions and right? Is the act fulfilling its purpose, if so, what do people do about it? Frequent answers on how they can contribute in the fight against climate change (air pollution) are: avoid incinerating or burning things e.g. plastics, Conclusion 1. 2. 3. People are not fully aware of the provisions of the act, Current conditions imply that the assurance of clean air by the act is not accomplished yet but will be in a long time and Simple thing such as carpooling and avoiding incineration will go a long way in the fight against climate change, particularly in air pollution. Works Cited * increase greenhouse gas concentrations. *disappearance and retreat of glaciers *acidification of the planet’s oceans -National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA -incineration or burning of bio-medical and hazardous wastes, outdoor air pollution (e.g. excessive levels of sulfur or aromatic content in vehicle fuels),

-and indoor air pollution (e.g. smoking in enclosed public areas).”(Cuevas, 2007) decrease in calcification of corals and mollusks. Implementation of the Clean Air Act is a national priority to combat air pollution.” (Philippine Star, Dec. 4, 2002) carpooling or reduce fuel consumptions to lessen emissions and spread the word about climate change and the campaigns against it. Climate change is the number one cause of low production. Mango, which is one of the leading crops in the region in terms of production, was also affected by climate change. La Ninῆa is the result of an air-sea interaction. Organic Agriculture can mitigate climate change. This can help offset emission up to 25 percent of greenhouse gases. It also enhances soil fertility and improves soil retention, which helps sustain yields during drought. “The negative economic impact of climate change on the country is not difficult to imagine:

* water shortages,
* sharp decreases in agricultural productivity;
*infectious diseases due to heat stress;
* large number of poor Filipinos in low-lying coastal areas becoming ‘climate refugees’;
* disappearance of small islands,
* coral bleaching;and
* decline in livestock production and fish catch,” the paper stated. These human activities results to production of greenhouse gases that traps the heat coming from the sun inside the earth.
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