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Tundra Biome

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lauren grogan

on 1 December 2014

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Transcript of Tundra Biome

Arctic Biome Overview
Who - Organisms
Where - Climate and Abiotics
Key Associations - Keystone Species
Important Adaptions
Nearby Biomes

Where is the Tundra: Climate
• Cold, desert-like
• Average winter temp. -34C
• Average summer temp. 9C
Tundra Biome
Hannah, Kennard, Lauren, Logan, Shelby
Community Associations
Energy Flow
Food webs & Dominance Webs
Symbiosis
Keystone species

Who lives in the Tundra?
What is a biome?
A biome is a biological community that shares common abiotic conditions and have similar community members interacting in common patterns
Biodiversity
• Low biodiversity
• Energy/nutrients from dead organism matter
• Large population oscillations

Arctic Tundra
• Cold, desert-like
• Growing season short
• Yearly precipitation (melting snow) 15-25 cm or 6-10 in
• Permafrost, permanently frozen subsoil

Alpine Tundra
What is Permafrost?
Frozen approximately 10 in-3 ft
Water saturates upper surface, bogs/ponds may form, providing moisture for plants
No deep root systems

• high altitudes, no tree
• Growing season short
• Night temperatures below freezing
• Soil is well drained
• similar to the Arctic Tundra

• Appears like that of a temperate grassland
• Melting snow is carried away by streams, collecting in lakes and wetlands

Latitude
• 55 to 70 North
• Covering 20% of the Earth’s surface, circumnavigating the North Pole

Youngest biome, formed 10,000 years ago
Finnish word "tunturia" meaning a barren land
Over 400 types of flora
2011 NOAA Study
• long based study

• Appears to be “growing greener”

• More open water and increase in summer warmth, less ice

• More vegetation, why?

• Plants could be larger, or just numerous

Sources
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/arctic-tundra-growing-greener-warmer-summers
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1551400?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21104628417741

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/tundra.html
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm

http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=EAMRN8Psi7wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=temperate+deciduous+forest&ots=8ZQcHJ3clw&sig=IgzgtcBIqHy4SmgOnFzlRv5HREM#v=onepage&q=temperate%20deciduous%20forest&f=false

https://www.geo.umass.edu/climate/doug/pubs/overpeck_etal_sci97.pdf
http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/arctictundra.html
Tundra Plants
crustose

foliose lichen

Herbivorous Mammals
Carnivorous Mammals
Migratory Birds
Insects
Fish
Arctic
Alpine
Plants
Mammals
Birds
Insects
Lemmings

Vole

Caribou

squirrels

Arctic hare

Arctic fox

Arctic Wolves

Polar bears

Ravens

Snow owls

Snow bunting

Loon

Sandpiper

Falcons

Tern

Gull

mosquitoes

Flies

Grasshoppers

Arctic bumble bee

Flatfish

Trout

Cod

Salmon

Dwarf tree

heaths

Tussock grass

Pikas

Marmonts

Sheep

Elk

Goat

Geese

Springtail

beetles

grasshoppers

butterflies

reindeer moss/ lichen
Energy Flow
Liverworts
Energy is passed from the sun to plants like liverwort that are eaten by various animals
These animals are then eaten by predators and the energy continues to flow
Symbiosis
Keystone Species
Mutualism - Plants
Parasitism - Liver worms in Caribou
Commensalism - Caribou and small predators
Arctic wolves

salmon

Polar Bears
Arctic Fox
Arctic Hare
Lemmings
Caribou
Squirrels
Vole
Arctic Fox
Adaptations
Caribou
Mosquitoes
Arctic Wolves
Tundra Wolves
Lemmings
Arctic Foxes
Snowy Owl
Polar Bears
Plants
Top Predators - Tertiary
Nearby Biome:
Temperate deciduous forests

Temperature
-30°C to 30°C, yearly average is 10°C, hot summers, cold winters

Precipitation
750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year

Vegetation
Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses

Location
Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan
Animals
fat dormouse
Plants
American Beech
Not many forests like this due to such fertile land
Temperate deciduous forests always have four separate seasons
Abiotics
Simple vegetation
Short growth/ reproduction time
limit of drainage
Plants
Small Herbivores
Insects
Predatory Birds
Birds
Large Herbivores
Tertiary Consumers
Fur color, thickness, layers
Blubber and fur
oil for water resistance
feather colors
plants smaller growing season

Summer Season
Full transcript