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Poverty & Inequality - Brokdin
Transcript of Poverty & Inequality - Brokdin
similarities between welfare moms and public sector workers
Both accused of abusing public system and greed
Continue to cut public sector benefits and wages discourage people from public sector careers
Welfare reform led to working poor-issue is quality paying jobs
Public sector workers have support and unions, to fight against policies-working poor do not Women's economic dependence on others continues
Social programs not designed for reality faced by lone mothers
Still negative perception of lone mothers but all lone mothers are different
Need to adjust public policy to address dilemma between work and raising children How Poverty Differs for Women “Gender Poverty Disparity in US Cities: Evidence Exonerating Female-Headed Families” Lichtenwalter Burton, L. and Tucker, M. (2009). “Romantic unions in an Era of Uncertainty: a Post-Moynihan Perspective African American Women and Marriage.” We've seen a recent focus on high-powered women in the workplace (i.e. Sheryl Sandberg). How has this changed or advanced the discussion about the dilemma women face in balancing work and family? How does this influence public perception of women in poverty?
How do you economically value work in the home and care giving? Should care be a public good? How could we measure it?
If we feel welfare policies encourage marriage, what changes can we embrace to support single-headed households and single-sex couples? How feasible is it to expect success given the failures of past initiatives to encourage marriage and dual income households- what can we do to better help female headed households?
We read over and over that the wage gap persists between men and women. What do you think causes this continued disparity? If it is just engrained cultural notions, then will it ever change? How? "...the region with the lowest level of gender wage inequality between men and women also had higher than average levels of racial and class wage inequality among both men and women (McCall, 2001)" Complicates the current applicability of the Moynihan report using a lens of temporal uncertainty and gender role uncertainty to better understand contemporary heterosexual African American romantic relationships.
Note: Relies on ethnographic data of another study for quotes Govts see paid work as the main way for individuals and families to be self-sufficient
Article looks at Australia, Canada, and New Zealand
Main argument: opportunities to earn, accrue assets, and leave poverty vary by gender, family circumstances, and location Discussion Questions Genderization of Poverty Purpose: - Historical gender differences in paid and unpaid labor
- Demographic shift toward single female-headed families Education Highest: 1.76 (7.2% females below poverty/4.1% males below poverty in Virginia Beach, VA
Lowest: 1.07 (11.3% females below poverty/10.6% males below poverty) in San Francisco, CA For many women with least desirable jobs, PROWRA has been a poor substitute for public assistance. female education premiums
female's increased work force
participation EITC: most powerful poverty relief program for working families temporal uncertainty def Temporal Uncertainty involves:
Women’s presumed infractions against socially prescribed morale codes of time use- must debunk stereotypes
Expectations and behaviors around life expectation of themselves and their loved ones
How women synchronize the daily rhythms of their family’s needs with institutional timetables. gender relation uncertainty Gender Role Uncertainty derive from:
Changing structural and relational dynamics of male and female labor market and educational experience
Tenuous nature of norms that govern the distribution of domestic tasks. conclusion Comparison of gendered employment patterns Technology has replaced a lot of workers, de-skilled jobs; less job protection
Rising costs of living, higher levels of female education, and changing notions about women’s roles have meant more women have joined the workforce
A severe gender pay-gap still exists Influence of parenthood on earning Reasons women might make less money
Reasons mothers might make less money Impact of household configuration on employment and economic well-being Gap between high and low-income households has been growing State support for parental employment Child support
“Policymakers have urged beneficiaries to avoid “dependency” P. 625
social spending on families
Parental leave for employees
Problems Conclusion "contribute to research that begins to distinguish between the unique contributions of women's paid labor and family composition to the gender differences in poverty rates" Differences b/w female and male poverty: our detailed notes are on Chalk! Proportion of females (18-64) with incomes below the US Census poverty thresholds is HIGHER than that of males in EVERY major US city. Working age females with a bachelor degree or higher:
Highest 48.1% in Seattle, WA
Lowest 7.5% in Santa Ana, CA Workforce Participation Females comprising the full-time, full-year work force:
Highest: 50.3% in Detroit, MI
Lowest: 36% in Santa Ana, CA Gender poverty disparity Lowest wage occupations Highest: 61.2% in Toledo, OH
Lowest: 42.6% in Santa Ana, CA Highest wage occupations Highest: 55.8% in Detroit, MI
Lowest: 34.5% in Colorado Springs, CO Female-headed households Is marriage a poverty-buster?
Critique of study by Ron Haskins focusing on the financial benefits of marriage
Author suggests that Haskins mixes good outcomes with idea that with sheer determination can overcome poverty
sometimes, individual work ethic not enough to overcome economic and social factors and marriage does not always increase stability Highest: 55.22% Detroit, MI
Lowest: 15% Santa Ana, CA The authors used a framework of uncertainty to analyze and understand African American heterosexual romantic relationships within the context of poverty-related instability. Unlike the Moynihan Report, the authors see African American women's trends toward romantic relationships and marriage as based on adaptive skills and not reflective of social "pathology." The authors propose that incorporating insights of African American women may help develop more effective strategies to reduce poverty. female earnings
gender wage gap but NO impact on GENDER POVERTY GAP Support for the likely ineffectiveness of TANF initiatives promoting employment and marriage for alleviating female poverty No evidence to substantiate the benefits of marriage promotion programs. "The Dilemmas of Lone Motherhood: Key Issues for Feminist Economics" by Albelda et al Key dilemma of our time: How to raise children while earning a living?
Lone mothers must balance role as primary caregiver and primary breadwinner
Continuously growing number of lone mothers across the world demands sense of urgency to update policy The percent of females employed in the lowest wage occupations is the primary determinant of the gender poverty gap in the largest U.S. cities. “Working Their Way Out of Poverty? Gendered Employment in Three Welfare States” by Maureen Baker