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Carbon and Other Group 4A Elements

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Nicole Awuor

on 4 November 2013

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Transcript of Carbon and Other Group 4A Elements

As you move down the period the ionization energies decrease because the further the electrons are from the nucleus, the easier it is to remove them. However, since the Group is composed of metals, metalloids, and nonmetals the electronegative does not follow this trend
Carbon and Other Group 4A Elements
Chemical and Physical Properties
Properties that make this group special
Nonmetal and Metal Properties and Fun Facts
Location on Periodic Table
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties
Carbon: Soft dull gray or black non-metal (usually as diamond or graphite). Melts at 3500 degC and boils at 4827 degC. Is a solid at room temperature.

Silicon: Hard dark gray metalloid. Melts at 1400 degC and boils at 2355 degC. Is a solid at room temperature. It is a semiconductor.

Germanium: Hard grayish-white metalloid. Melts at 937.4 degC and boils at 2830 degC. Is usually a solid at room temperature.

Tin: Very malleable silver white metal. Melts at 232.06 degC and boils at 2270. degC Is a solid at room temperature.

Lead: Very soft bluish-white metal. Melts at 327.6 degC and boils at 1740 degC. Is a solid at room temperature.

Carbon~ nonmetal
Silicon~ metalloid
Germanium~ metalloid
Tin~ metal
Nonmetal Properties
Carbon, silicon, and geranium tend to be brittle
Carbon does not conduct electricity
geranium and silicon are semiconductors
Metal Properties
Tin and Lead are both malleable, ductile and good conductors
are solid and shiny at room temperature
Fun Facts on Group 4A elements
They used to be known as the tetrels, which comes from the Greek word "tetra", meaning 4
By Nicole Awuor Ayieko and Hannah Pettibone
The group 4A elements have electron configurations that end with ns^2 np^2
Unlike most periods, Group 4A is not composed of only metals or nonmetals. It has one nonmetal, two metalloids, and two metals.
This group has 4 valance electrons: 2 p electrons and 2 s electrons. This causes the elements to generally form 2+ ions, by loss of the two outermost electrons. Or on occasion 4+ ions, by loosing all four valance electrons
Ion Formation
Atomic radius is increasing as you go down the family.
The group 4A elements tend to be oxidized by the halogens.
Ge(s) + 2Cl2(g)--> GeCl4(l) [Germanium tetrachloride]
+4 oxidation number.
Group 4A elements combine with oxygen to form oxides.
2Pb(s) + O2(g)--> 2PbO [ Lead(II) Oxide]
Silicon and Germanium are semiconductors (can conduct better than none conductors).
First Ionization energy of the group 4A elements decreases as you go down the family.

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