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Bio-Inspired Photonics

ME 391 Final Presentation

Kyle Zufelt

on 12 August 2013

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Transcript of Bio-Inspired Photonics

Kyle Zufelt
300 AD - Lycurgus Cup
10,000 BC - Behaviorally modern humans
65 Million Years Ago - Dinosaurs go extinct
400 Million Years Ago - Insects roam the earth
500 Million Years Ago - Fish swim the oceans
1987 AD - Electronic band theory
applied to 3D photonic structures
Non-Polarizing Reflectors
Some animals developed polarization-vision instead of color-vision
Brewster's Angle
Broadband Reflectors
The bandwidth of reflectivity can be increased by incorporating random disorder into the layer thickness of a Bragg mirror. Thus animals only need to maintain an average size/spacing, not strict control of photonic crystal structure.
By alternating two types of birefringent crystal, with varying orientations of the extraordinary axis, fish have developed non-polarizing, broadband reflectors
Nature's Solution
One birefringent crystal
One isotropic crystal
Two birefringent crystals
N=20 layers
Lessons We Can Learn
Response maintains location and
bandwidth, but reflection is only ~40%
A computational study shows that for an equal number of layers, a biomimetic device will outperform a fish scale in terms of polarization independent reflection
The bandwidth of this effect is
larger than in the fish scale
TM Jordan et al., "Non-polarizing broadband multilayer reflectors in fish", Nature Photonics, 2012

JW Galusha et al., "Study of natural photonic crystals in beetle scales and their conversion into inorganic structures via a sol–gel bio-templating route" J Mat Chem, 2009

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 (20), 1987

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices", Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 (23), 1987

D Zhang et al., "Broadband optical reflector—an application of light localization in one dimension", App. Phys. Lett. 1995

A Levy-Lior et al., "Biogenic Guanine Crystals from the Skin of Fish May Be Designed to Enhance Light Reflectance", Cryst. Growth Des. 2008
Structural Color in Beetles
Each sphere of chitin is ~230nm in diameter
Each guanine crystal is
30-300nm thick, and is
separated by a layer of cytoplasm
Some animals use multilayer reflectors to enhance the countershading effect
It is unclear why some beetles have developed structural color. The unnatural colors are unlikely to be effective as camouflage. They may be used to attract potential mates, or they may just be an evolutionary hiccup.
Glenea celia (Longhorn Beetle)
Pachyrhynchus moniliferus (Weevil)
Perfection in manufacture is not always necessary or desirable
Nature has had hundreds of millions of years to create interesting photonic structures such as 3D photonic crystals and non-polarizing reflectors
70 nm gold particles
embedded in glass
(Bragg mirrors, a 1D Photonic crystal, were deliberately made as early as 1887)
Humans have only been able to explore these bio-photonics for
~200 years, so there is plenty left to discover
S. John, PRL, 1987
E. Yablanovitch, PRL, 1987
We can use natural materials as a scaffold for fabricating
photonic crystal "atoms" of arbitrary size and lattice type
without the need for difficult chemistry/nanofabrication
By using a low temperature sol-gel chemistry, we can
create negative or positive replicas of natural structures
Timeline is Log Scale
Cambrian Period
Galusha et al 2009
Jordan et al., 2012
Full transcript