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Power and Influence in the Workplace

Management 104

Momo Ira Toda

on 3 February 2013

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Transcript of Power and Influence in the Workplace

Group 3 Power and Influence in
the Workplace Chapter 10 Influence is any behavior that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behavior Power and Dependence The meaning of Power Influencing Others Sketches Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others. Potential, not practice
People have power they don’t use -- may not know they possess
Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person Applies one or more power bases
Process through which people achieve organizational objectives
Operates up, down, and across the organizational hierarchy Model of Power in Organizations Sources of Power Reward Legitimate Expert Individual’s or work unit’s capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value
Employees gaining expert power over companies in knowledge economy Agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others
Based on job descriptions and mutual agreement from those expected to abide by this authority
Legitimate power range (zone of indifference) is higher in high power distance cultures Coercive Ability to apply punishment
Exists upward as well as downward
Peer pressure is a form of coercive power Ability to control the allocation of rewards valued by others and to remove negative sanctions
Operates upward as well as downward Occurs when others identify with, like, or otherwise respect the person
Associated with charismatic leadership Information and Power Control over information flow Based on legitimate power
Relates to formal communication network Coping with uncertainty Those who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain power Prevention
Absorption Contingencies
of Power Visibility Symbols communicate your power source(s)
-Educational diplomas
-Clothing etc (stethoscope around neck)
-Location where others are more
aware of your presence Contingencies of Power Discretion The freedom to exercise judgment
Rules limit discretion, limit power
Also a perception managers with internal locus of control act like they have discretion Centrality Degree and nature of interdependence between powerholder and others
Centrality is a function of: A contingency of
power pertaining to
the availability of
alternatives. Substitutability -How many others are affected by you
-How quickly others are affected by you Social Networking and Power Cultivating social relationships with others to accomplish one’s goals
Increases power through:-social capital
durable network that connects people to others with valuable resources
referent power -- people tend to identify more with partners within their own networks
visibility and centrality contingencies Referent Types of Influence Silent Authority Following requests without overt influence
Based on legitimate power, role modeling
Common in high power distance cultures Assertiveness Actively applying legitimate and coercive power (“vocal authority”)
Reminding, confronting, checking, threatening Information Control Manipulating others’ access to information
Withholding, filtering, re-arranging information Coalition Formation Group forms to gain more power than individuals alone
1. Pools resources/power
2. Legitimizes the issue
3. Power through social identity Upward Appeal Appealing to higher authority
Includes appealing to firm’s goals
Alliance or perceived alliance with higher status person Ingratiation
Impression Management Ingratiation/ Impress. Mgt Persuasion Logic, facts, emotional appeals
Depends on persuader, message content, message medium, audience Exchange Promising or reminding of past benefits in exchange for compliance
Includes negotiation and networking Hard Influence Tactics Soft Influence Tactics Silent authority
Upward appeal
Coalition formation
Information control
Assertiveness Persuasion
Ingratiation &impression mgt
Exchange Resistance Compliance Commitment Contingencies of Influence Tactics Appropriate influence tactic depends on:

Organizational position
Influencer’s power base
Cultural values and expectations “Soft” tactics generally more acceptable than “hard” tactics Organizational Politics Behaviors that others perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the expense of other people and possibly the organization. Minimizing Political Behavior Introduce clear rules for scarce resources
Effective organizational change practices
Suppress norms that support or tolerate self-serving behavior
Leaders role model organizational citizenship
Give employees more control over their own work
Keep employees informed
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