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BALLET: physics in motion

Final Project for Physics
by

Rachel Barkley

on 30 May 2013

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Transcript of BALLET: physics in motion

the physics of ballet and pointe BALLET: physics in motion The History of Ballet Closing After Louis King of France ordered the Royal Academy of Dance (RAD) be formed, ballet dancing emerged. It was initially done in a pair of heels until Marie Camargo danced in a pair much like the ballet shoes we dancers wear today. Typical ballet dancers wear shoes made of canvas, leather, or satin in all different colors -- though the most prominent are tan, white, black, and or course pink. The most important piece of physics used in all types of dance is being able to find a center of balance. Without this, a dancer cannot turn, leap, arabesque, or even stand on relevé. Center of Balance & Equilibrium In all leaps in dance, a dancer needs strength and a deep plié. Leaps are easier when a dancer can run or sashe into the leap which causes momentum. Leaping DANCING EN POINTE In short, physics is used in every aspect of life, from something as extraordinary as rainbows to an activity like dance or even walking. The main parts of physics used in dance are torque, momentum, friction, gravity, and of course balance. * Ballet shoes are worn by all dancers: both male a female. The History of Pointe * Before pointe shoes were created dancers used wire work in order to be able to dance on their toes. The first pointe dancer was Marie Taglioni. Her shoes were satin slippers with leather soles. In the 19th century, Pierina Legnani wore shoes closer to the more modern shoe. They didn't use nails and had a box made out of fabric. In the 20th century, the modern pointe shoe was created and worn by Anna Pavlova. Her shoes' box was hardened flattened leather. * Pointe dancing is traditionally done by women, however men have danced pointe as well. Usually they are playing the roles of women or unorthodox roles in ballets. Examples of this include Bottom in A Midsummer Night's Dream and the Ugly Stepsisters in Cinderella. Parts of a Pointe Shoe The Box The Shank The Sole Ribbons/Elastic *Toe Pads Because every dancer's foot is different, pointe shoe companies make different types of shoes for each type of foot. Pointe dancers get fitted for shoes and have to pick based on their: Strength Size Arches Flexibility A dancer's body must be in equilibrium in order to execute any of these moves. * Most turns in ballet are done on one foot, which makes it harder to find equilibrium and a center of balance. The weight on each side of the body must be equal in order to do these turns without falling over. THE PHYSICS OF BALLET MOVEMENT In order to balance while standing still, ones net torque and net force must equal zero. VOCAB: center of balance - the point where all of the body's weight is concentrated. equilibrium - when the body's net force and net torque are equal. torque - the amount of force on an object used to cause it to rotate. angular momentum - the body's rotational inertia around a set axis. force - any influence that causes an object to change. inertia - the resistance of any object to change its state of motion or rest. velocity - how fast somethings going and the direction it's going in. friction - is the force used to slow objects down. Turning Fouettes Pirouette Jeté, grand Bibliography rosin When it comes to turning in dance the most important thing, besides finding a center of balance is torque and friction. Torque controls how fast you turn and comes from when a dancer brings her arms in and out (or from first to second position) while turning. In fouette turns, a dancer plies with her leg extended, then as the dancer relevé, she moved her leg around (rond de jambe) out to second position before bring her leg to passe. This leg movement creates torque and momentum for the dancer's turn - the faster your leg whips around, the faster a dancer turns. In a pirouette, a dancer begins from a deep plie in fourth position. Then the dancer springs from her plie into relevé and bring her arms to first position and her leg to her knee. This movement of her arms created momentum. The most important part of a pirouette is making sure you have a deep enough plié to create enough momentum to get you around. If the plié isn't deep enough there won't be enough momentum. Another thing that helps with turning is spotting, which is whipping your head around, this keeps a dancer from getting dizzy while turning. It is also used to keep your head at the axis rotation and help you keep your center of balance. Rosin is used to stop dancers from slipping or sliding while dancing. it creates friction between the satin of the dancer's shoe and the wood of the floor. Dodge, S. (1997). Physics of ballet dancing. Retrieved from http://iceskatingresources.org/PhysicsBallet.pdf
Gollin, G. (2000, June 21). The physics of dance. Retrieved from http://www.hep.uiuc.edu/home/g-gollin/dance/dance_physics.html
Kunzig, R. (2008, September 11). The physicist who figured out ballet. Retrieved from http://discovermagazine.com/2008/the-body/11-the-physicist-who-figured-out-ballet
Missaghi, M. (2008). The physics of toe shoes. Retrieved from http://www.the-perfect-pointe.com/PointeShoePhysics.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointe_shoes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballet_shoe http://wiki.croomphysics.com/index.php?title=The_Physics_of_Dance In order to execute a beautiful Jeté, grand a dancer needs momentum. Gravity is the main force acting on the dancer -- it's the force that sends the dancer back down to the ground. In order to keep the illusion of floating, the dancer should go into a "split" position in the air -- thus changing the distance between the center of gravity and the dancer's head. A Jeté, grand is in the shape of a parabola. The average amount of force on one foot in the full-pointe position is 20.4075 N. One foot in the full-pointe position had the most force: 40.81501 N per square centimeter. This can be found my measuring the weight of the dancer, changing it to Newtons and dividing it by the amount of centimeters squared the shoe is. http://www.abt.org/education/dictionary/index.html
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