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Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect

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samsa brotons

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect

Present Perfect - Use

1) Result of an action in the past is important in the present

I have cleaned my room.

2) Recently completed action

He has just played handball.

3) State beginning in the past and still continuing

We have lived in Canada since 1986.

4) together with lately, recently, yet

I have been to London recently.

Signal words

just, yet, never, already, ever, so far, up to now, recently, since, for

Form

have/has + past participle

Examples

Affirmative sentences:

I have cleaned my room.
I've cleaned my room. You have cleaned your room.
You've cleaned your room.
Negative sentences:

I have not cleaned my room.
I've not cleaned my room.
I haven't cleaned my room. You have not cleaned your room.
You've not cleaned your room.
You haven't cleaned your room.
Questions:

In the Present Perfect we put the auxiliary (have or has) before the subject
(Auxiliary - Subject - Verb - Rest). see: Questions in Present Perfect

Have I cleaned my room? Have you cleaned your room?
1) Karen______ me an e-mail. (to send)
2) Dave and Pat _____the museum. (to visit)
3) I _____at the pet shop. (to be)
4) They _____already ______ their rucksacks. (to pack)
5) Marcus ______ an accident. (to have)
6) We _______the shopping for our grandmother. (to do)
7) I ______ just ________ my bike. (to clean)
8) Emily________ her room. (to paint)
9) Lisa and Colin _____to a concert. (to go)
10) My friends _______ smoking. (to give up)
The Beatles
The BeatlesThe Beatles were one of the most influential music groups of the rock era, and many consider them the best musical group on Earth. Initially they affected the post-war baby boom generation of Britain and the U.S. during the 1960s, and later the rest of the world. Certainly they were the most successful group, with global sales exceeding 1.1 billion records.

While they were originally famous for light-weight pop music (and the extreme hysterical reaction they received from young women), their later works achieved a combination of popular and critical acclaim perhaps unequaled in the 20th century.

Eventually, they became more than recording artists, branching out into film and — particularly in the case of John Lennon — political activism. They achieved an iconic status beyond mere celebrity, with far reaching effects difficult to exaggerate.

The members of the group were John Lennon, (James) Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey), all from Liverpool, Merseyside, England. Original drummer Pete Best was asked to leave the group just before it started recording. Stuart Sutcliffe was with them in Hamburg but also left.

Beatlemania began in the UK and exploded following the appearance of the Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show in the United States, on February 9, 1964. The pop-music band became a worldwide phenomenon with worshipful fans, hysterical adulation, and denunciations by culture commentators and others such as Frank Sinatra.

Some of this was confusion over the sources of their music (a similar confusion was evinced in 1956 over Elvis Presley by commentators who were unaware of the tradition of blues, R&B and gospel out of which Presley emerged), and some of it was simply an incredulous reaction to the length of their hair. At any rate, it was regarded by the band members with both awe and resentment.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "The Beatles". You can explore more on the Wikipedia website. The text and the images are used here only for educational purposes.


Questions about the text

1. They were the best selling group in history.
True.
False.
We don't know.

2. All the members were from Liverpool.
True.
False.
We don't know.

3. They appeared on TV on February 9, 1964.
True.
False.
We don't know.

4. There was some confusion about the sources of their music.
True.
False.
We don't know.

5. Their music was copied by Elvis Presley.
True.
False.
We don't know.

6. Frank Sinatra didn't like the Beatles too much.
True.
False.
We don't know.
Past Perfect
Past Perfect (Pasado perfecto)


El pasado perfecto en inglés corresponde al pluscuamperfecto de español.
En general, lo usamos para acciones que han ocurrido antes de otra acción en el pasado.

Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)

Form (Forma)
Igual que en el presente perfecto, se forma el pasado perfecto con el verbo auxiliar "to have" y el participio pasado. El verbo auxiliar estará en pasado.

Subject Auxiliary Short Form Past Participle
I, You, He, She, It, We, They had I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd studied, visited, worked...
Note: Ten cuidado: La contracción "-'d" también se utiliza con el verbo modal "would" para formar el condicional. Como tal, la forma corta "I'd" puede tener dos significados diferentes. Podemos distinguir entre estos dos significados por la forma del verbo principal que les sigue. Si queremos decir "I'd" en el sentido de pasado perfecto, el verbo principal está en la forma de participio pasado, mientras que con el condicional, "I'd" va seguido por el verbo en infinitivo. Para más información, ver la lección sobre las frases condicionales.

Structure (Estructura)
Affirmative Sentences (Frases afirmativas)
Estructura Sujeto + "had" + participio pasado...
Ejemplos:
Play I'd visited the Louvre before so I knew where the Mona Lisa was. (Había visitado el Museo del Louvre antes, así que sabía donde estaba la Mona Lisa.)
Play They'd studied English before they went to London. (Habían estudiado inglés antes de irse a Londres.)
Play Henry changed careers because he'd worked as an accountant for many years and was bored. (Henry cambió de profesión porque había trabajado como contable durante muchos años y estaba aburrido.)

Negative Sentences (Frases negativas)
Estructura Sujeto + "had" + "not" + participio pasado...
Ejemplos:
I hadn't visited the Louvre before so I didn't know where the Mona Lisa was. (No había visitado el Museo del Louvre antes, así que no sabía donde estaba la Mona Lisa.)
They hadn't studied English before they went to London. (No habían estudiado inglés antes de irse a Londres.)
Henry changed careers even though he hadn't worked as an accountant for long. (Henry cambió de profesión a pesar de que no había trabajado como contable durante mucho tiempo.)

Interrogative Sentences (Frases interrogativas)
Estructura"Had" + sujeto + participio pasado...?
Ejemplos:
How did you know where the Mona Lisa was? Had you visited the Louvre before? (¿Cómo sabías dónde estaba la Mona Lisa? ¿Había visitado el Museo del Louvre antes?)
PHad they studied English before they went to London? (¿Habían estudiado inglés antes de irse a Londres?)
Had Henry worked as an accountant for long before he changed careers? (¿Henry había trabajado como contable durante mucho tiempo antes de cambiar de profesión?)
Uses (Usos)

Usamos el pasado perfecto para referirnos a una acción o evento que comenzó en el pasado y que es anterior a otra acción también en el pasado. La acción que ocurrió primero es en pasado perfecto y la que sigue en pasado simple.
Ejemplos:
I'd read the book before I saw the movie. (Había leído el libro antes de ver la película.)
Donna had just left when you called. (Donna había salido justo cuando llamaste.)
Had you ever flown before the trip to France? (¿Alguna vez habías volado antes del viaje a Francia?)
Se usa para acciones que ocurrieron antes de un tiempo específico en el pasado.
Ejemplos:
I had already woken up when the alarm clock rang at 7am. (Ya me había despertado cuando sonó el despertador a las 7.)
He hadn't been to France before the trip in 2008. (No había estado en Francia antes del viaje del 2008.)
También, como en el presente perfecto, con algunos verbos usamos el pasado perfecto para situaciones que han empezado en el pasado y que siguieron hasta un punto específico en el pasado.
Ejemplos:
She had only owned one car before she bought her new BMW. (Había tenido un coche antes de que lcompró su nuevo BMW.)
I'd been depressed for a long time before I changed jobs. (Había estado deprimido durante mucho tiempo antes de que cambiara de trabajo.)


1) She_______ in Sweden before she went to Norway. (to live)
2) After we_______ the cornflakes, Henry came in. (to eat)
3) Before Ken ran to Kerry's house, he_______ him. (to phone)
4) After they_______ their rucksacks, they rode away on their bikes. (to pack)
5) Gerry helped his grandma in the house because his father______ him so. (to tell)
6) The cat hid under the chair because the children_______ so loud. (to be)
7) Before the students started to write, the teacher________ their mobile phones. (to collect)
8) After Max__________ his breakfast, he left the flat. (to finish)
9) Laura repaired her glasses because her brother________ them. (to break)
10) By the time the show began, all friends_________ . (to arrive)
Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect
1) The students ________a flight to Vienna. (to book)
2) The cat ________a mouse. (just/to catch)
3) Jack and Brian ________ this picture. (to draw)
4) He ________ his friends. (already/to invite)
5) Julia__________ a table with three columns. (to make)
6) My friends_________ the Geography test. (to pass)
7) I _________ the rabbits. (just/to feed)
8) The baby hedgehogs________ the water. They are sleeping now. (to drink)
9) The teacher ________ the keys, so he can't open the door. (to lose)
10) We _______the worksheets. (already/to download)
1) Our class_______ the test yet. (not/to write)
2) Tim and Joe ______a box. (not/to carry)
3) It _______to snow. (not/to start)
4) The cat _______onto the table. (not/to jump)
5) I _______the castle. (not/to visit)
6) We _______out of the room. (not/to go)
7) Fred ________the money. (not/to steal)
8) They _______Anne about it. (not/to tell)
9) Steven _______ through the park. (not/to walk)
10) The teacher _______to the party. (not/to come)


1) She______ her room_______ . (not/to tidy up/yet)
2) They_______ a Tablet PC_________ . (not/to use/so far)
3) My father _________the car. It is still dirty. (not/to polish)
4) The children ________the comics_______ . (not/to read/yet)
5) Jason and Tony _______ the words, so they will probably fail the test. (not/to learn)
6) His mother ________breakfast _______. (not/to make/so far)
7) I _______on a lake in winter______ . (not/to skate/yet)
8) My boss ______ the helpline. (not/to phone)
9) He ________his favourite T-shirt himself. (not/to wash)
10) Sarah _______her dog ________. (not/to take out/yet)

1) _______you________ the kitchen door? (to paint)
2) _______your brother__________ the shopping? (to do)
3) ________Julian ever________ a spider? (to touch)
4) _________your father ever_________ on an elephant? (to ride)
5) _______Lee_______ his parents yet? (to ask)
6) What ______ you________ in your text? (to write)
7) _______Bill________ the radio? (to turn off)
8) ________you ever________ in a helicopter? (to fly)
9) Who___________ the window? (to break)
10) ________you ever ________ for your friends? (to cook)

1) ________here _________ five years? (John/to live/for)

2) __________ the e-mail to Grandma ________? (the twins/to write/yet)

3) Why_____________ so much money on sweets? (Dan/to spend)

4) ____________ the talk in History _____________? (Sophie/to prepare/yet)

5) ______________the house before their parents in the morning? (they/to leave/ever)

6) How often______________ in the last Maths lesson? (you/to yawn)

7) _____________the round table for us_____________ ? (waiter/to lay/yet)

8) What______________ ? (Olivia/to do/lately)

9) Where__________________ in the USA ? (you/to be)

10) Why ___________ the tyres__________________ ? (you/not/to check/yet)


"My Favourite Game"

I don't know what you're looking for
you haven't found it baby, that's for sure
You rip me up and spread me all around
in the dust of the deed of time

And this is not a case of lust, you see
it's not a matter of you versus of me
It's fine the way you want me on your own
but in the end it's always me alone

And I'm losing my favourite game
you're losing your mind again
I'm losing my baby
losing my favourite game

I only know what I've been working for
another you so I could love you more
I really thought that I could take you there
but my experiment is not getting us anywhere

I had a vision I could turn you right
a stupid mission and a lethal fight
I should have seen it when my hope was new
my heart is black and my body is blue

And I'm losing my favourite game
you're losing your mind again
I'm losing my favourite game
I've tried but you're still the same
I'm losing my baby
you're losing a saviour and a saint


1) Emma ________ this film on TV. (not/to see)
2) How often______ she______ the office? (to phone)
3) _______the Millers________ yet? (to arrive)
4) John _________ on a trip through Alaska. (not/to go)
5) ________they ever_________ to New York? (to be)
6) Andy __________ his sister's bike. (not/to repair)
7) What________ you________ in the kitchen? (to drop)
8) I _________ a new laptop. (to buy)
9) ________Toby_______ his blue pen? (to find)
10) The students__________ their homework. (not/to forget)

Your own personal jesus
someone to hear your prayers
someone who cares
your own personal jesus
someone to hear your prayers
someone who"s there

feeling unknown
and you"re all alone
flesh and bone
by the telephone
lift up the receiver
i"ll make you a believer
take second best
put me to the test
things on your chest
you need to confess
i will deliver
you know i"m a forgiver
reach out and touch faith
reach out and touch faith

your own personal jesus
someone to hear your prayers
someone who cares
your own personal jesus
someone to hear your prayers
someone who"s there

feeling unknown
and you"re all alone
flesh and bone
by the telephone
lift up the receiver
i"ll make you a believer
i will deliver
you know i"m a forgiver
reach out and touch faith
your own personal jesus
reach out and touch faith



1) The driver_______ at the traffic lights, so the police car chased him. (not/to stop)
2) The budgie flew away because Jim_______ the window. (not/to close)
3) When we came home, Frank_________ the ceiling yet. (not/to paint)
4) Eric_________ his friends, so he was alone on Saturday evening. (not/to invite)
5) I_______ Olivia for three years before I met her in Spain. (not/to see)
6) He told me that he _________his brother the other day. (not/to speak)
7) Lisa _________the book, so she didn't understand the film. (not/to read)
8) The Smiths ________the new camera, so they could spend the money on new furniture. (not/to buy)
9) I didn't find my keys because I ________under the bed. (not/to look)
10) We ___________enough, so we lost the match. (not/to practise)

1) _________the instructions before they switched on the mobile phone? (they/to read)
2) __________the new words before she texted her friend? (the girl/to learn)
3) ________the office before they drove away? (they/to ring)
4) What_________ before she turned on the TV? (Lucy/to do)
5) ________ the software before he switched off the computer? (Walter/to update)
6) What _________ before she ran away? (she/to find)
7) ________the onions before he hurried to the window? (Tim/to cut)
8) ________here before? (you/to surf)
9) ________to Lisa before she prepared dinner? (Peggy/to talk)
10) _________London before you went there in 2009? (you/ever/to visit)

1) When I arrived at the restaurant, Victoria_______ a glass of water. (already/to order)
2) He noticed that Peter_________ the old chair. (not/to paint)
3) Before Emma laid the table, she________ a talk with her mother. (to have)
4) She asked me if I______ the new words. (to learn)
5) There were no sausages left when I came back. The dog_______ them. (to eat)
6) It_______ for three weeks, so the land was dry. (not/to rain)
7) I did not wait for my brother because I _______ his text message. (to read)
8) Linda________ to a magic show before yesterday evening. (never/to be)
9) She told me that Frank ________ his room. (not/to tidy)
10) _________ his hamster before he left his house? (Jack/to feed)

Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode are an English electronic band who formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex. The group's original line-up consisted of Dave Gahan (lead vocals), Martin Gore (keyboards, guitar, vocals, chief songwriter after 1981), Andrew Fletcher (keyboards) and Vince Clarke (keyboards, chief songwriter 1980–81). Vince Clarke left the band after the release of their 1981 debut album, and was replaced by Alan Wilder (keyboards, drums, production) with Gore taking over songwriting. Wilder left the band in 1995 and since then Gahan, Gore, and Fletcher have continued as a trio.

Depeche Mode are one of the most successful, influential and longest-lived bands from the early 1980s. They have had forty-eight songs in the UK Singles Chart and #1 albums in UK, US and throughout Europe. According to EMI, Depeche Mode have sold over 100 million albums and singles worldwide, making them the most successful electronic music group in music history. Q Magazine calls Depeche Mode "The most popular electronic band the world has ever known".

Questions about the text

1. Depeche Mode was formed in 1980.
True.
False.
We don't know.

2. Gore started writing songs when Clarke left the band.
True.
False.
We don't know.

3. The band became a trio when Clarke left the band.
True.
False.
We don't know.

4. The band made 48 songs in total.
True.
False.
We don't know.

5. They have sold more than 100 million albums.
True.
False.
We don't know.
Future Perfect

Use

sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the future

Form

will + have + past participle

Example

I will have written the letter by tomorrow.
Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect with "Will"

[will have + past participle]

Examples:

You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"

[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]

Examples:

You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning.
1.
Margaret: Do you think everything will be finished when I get back from the store?
Jerry: Don't worry. By the time you get back, I (pick) __________ up the living room and (finish)_________ washing the dishes. Everything will be perfect when your parents arrive.
Margaret: I hope so. They (arrive)__________ around 6 o'clock.
Jerry: Everything (be)____________ spotless by the time they get here.

2.
Nick: I just have two more courses before I graduate from university. By this time next year, I (graduate) _________, and I will already be looking for a job.
Stacey: Does that scare you? Are you worried about the future?
Nick: Not really. I (go) ____________ to a career counselor and get some advice on how to find a good job.
Stacey: That's a good idea.
Nick: I am also going to do an internship so that when I leave school, I (complete, not only)_________ over 13 business courses, but I (work, also) ___________ in the real world.

3.
Stan: Did you hear that Christine (take)__________ a vacation in South America this winter?
Fred: I can't believe how often she goes abroad. Where exactly does she want to go?
Stan: She (visit) _______________Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador.
Fred: At this rate, she (visit)_____________ every country in the world by the time she's 50.

4.
Judy: How long have you been in Miami?
Elaine: I have only been here for a couple of weeks.
Judy: How long do you plan on staying?
Elaine: I love Miami, so I (stay)__________ here for an extended period of time. When I go back home, I (be) __________ here for more than three months.
Judy: Wow, that's quite a vacation! You (see, definitely) _______________ just about everything there is to see in Miami by then.

5.
Jane: I can't believe how late we are! By the time we get to the dinner, everyone (finish, already) _____________ eating.
Jack: It's your own fault. You took way too long in the bathroom.
Jane: I couldn't get my hair to look right.
Jack: Who cares? By the time we get there, everyone (left)____________ . Nobody (see, even)____________ your hair.
I remember when we broke up the first time
seeing this is, and had enough, it's like
We haven't seen each other in a month
When you, said you, needed space, what?
When you come around again and say
Baby, I miss you and I swear I'm gonna change
Trust me, remember how that lasted for a day
I say, I hate you, we break up, you call me, I love you

Oooh we called it off again last night
But Oooh, this time I'm telling you, I'm telling you

We are never ever ever ever getting back together
You go talk to your friends talk
And my friends talk to me
But we are never ever ever ever getting back together

Like ever...

I'm really gonna miss you picking fights
And me, falling for a screaming that I'm right
And you, will hide away and find your piece of mine with some indie record that's much cooler than mine

Oooh you called me up again tonight
But Oooh, this time I'm telling you, I'm telling you
We are never ever ever ever getting back together
We are never ever ever ever getting back together
You go talk to your friends talk
And my friends talk to me
But we are never ever ever ever getting back together

I used to think, that we, were forever ever ever
And I used to say never say never
Huh, he calls me up and he's like, I still love you
And i'm like, I mean, I mean this is exhausting, you know
We are never getting back together, like ever

We are never ever ever ever getting back together
We are never ever ever ever getting back together
You go talk to your friends talk
And my friends talk to me
But we are never ever ever ever getting back together

Not getting back together, we
Oh, getting back together

You go talk to your friends talk
And my friends talk to me
But we are never ever ever ever getting back together.
I think, I think when it's all over, it just comes back in
flashes, you know? It's like a kaleidoscope of memories, it
just all comes back, but he never does.
I think part of me knew the second I saw him that this would
happen. It's not really anything he said, or anything he did.
It was the feeling that came along with it, and craziest thing
is I don't know if I'm ever gonna feel that way again, but I
don't know if I should.
I knew his world moved too fast, and burned too bright, but I
just thought, how can the devil be pulling you toward
someone who looks... so much like an angel when he smiles
at you. Maybe he knew that when he saw me.
I guess I just lost my balance. I think that the worst part of
it all wasn't losing him, it was losing me.
Once upon time, a few mistakes ago
I was in your sights
You got me alone, you found me
You found me, you found me
I guess you didn't care
And I guess I liked that
And when I fell hard
You took a step back
Without me, without me, without me
And he's long gone
When he's next to me
And I realize the blame is on me
Because I knew you were trouble when you walked in
So shame on me now
Pull me to places I'd never been
So you put me down oh
I knew you were trouble when you walked in
So shame on me now
Pull me to places I'd never been
Now I'm lying on a cold hard ground
Oh, trouble, trouble, trouble
Oh, trouble, trouble, trouble
No apologies
He'll never see you cry
Pretend he doesn't know
That he's the reason why
You're drowning, you're drowning, you're drowning
And I heard you moved on
From whispers on the street
A new notch in your belt
Is all I'll ever be
And now I see, now I see, now I see
He was long gone
When he met me
And I realize the joke is on me
I knew you were trouble when you walked in
So shame on me now
Pull me to places I'd never been
So you put me down oh
I knew you were trouble when you walked in
So shame on me now
Pull me to places I'd never been
Now I'm lying on the cold hard ground
Oh, trouble, trouble, trouble
Oh, trouble, trouble, trouble
When your saddest fear comes creeping in
That you never loved me
Or her or anyone or anything
I knew you were trouble when you walked in
So shame on me now
Pull me to places I'd never been
So you put me down oh
I knew you were trouble when you walked in
So shame on me now
Pull me to places I'd never been
Now I'm lying on the cold hard ground
Oh, trouble, trouble, trouble
Oh, trouble, trouble, trouble
I knew you were trouble when you walked in
Trouble, trouble, trouble
I knew you were trouble when you walked in
Trouble, trouble, trouble
I don't know if you know who you are
untill you lose who you are
Taylor Swift - I knew you were trouble
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