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Factitious Disorders

A presentation on factitious disorders.
by

Carisa Robinson

on 28 March 2011

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Transcript of Factitious Disorders

Factitious Disorders Factitious disorders are mental disorders in which a person acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when, in fact, he or she has consciously created his or her symptoms. The name factitious comes from the Latin word for "artificial." People with factitious disorders deliberately create or exaggerate symptoms of an illness in several ways. They may lie about or mimic symptoms, hurt themselves to bring on symptoms, or alter diagnostic tests (such as contaminating a urine sample). People with factitious disorders have an inner need to be seen as ill or injured, but not to achieve a concrete benefit, such as a financial gain. People with factitious disorders are even willing to undergo painful or risky tests and operations in order to obtain the sympathy and special attention given to people who are truly ill. Factitious disorders are considered mental illnesses because they are associated with severe emotional difficulties. Many people with factitious disorders also suffer from other mental disorders, particularly personality disorders. People with personality disorders have long-standing patterns of thinking and acting that differ from what society considers usual or normal. People with personality disorders generally also have poor coping skills and problems forming healthy relationships. Types of Factitious Disorders People with this disorder claim to have symptoms related to a physical illness--symptoms such as chest pain, stomach problems, or fever. People with this disorder report symptoms of both physical and mental illness. This type includes a disorder called factitious disorder by proxy (also called Munchausen syndrome by proxy). People with this disorder produce or fabricate symptoms of illness in another person under their care. It most often occurs in mothers (although it can occur in fathers) who intentionally harm their children in order to receive attention. (The term "by proxy" means "through a substitute.") Factitious disorder with mostly psychological symptoms Factitious disorder with mostly physical symptoms Factitious disorder with both psychological and physical symptoms Factitious disorder not otherwise specified As the description implies, people with this disorder mimic behavior that is typical of a mental illness, such as schizophrenia. They may appear confused, make absurd statements, and report hallucinations (the experience of sensing things that are not there; for example, hearing voices). People with this disorder claim to have symptoms related to a physical illness--symptoms such as chest pain, stomach problems, or fever. People with this disorder report symptoms of both physical and mental illness. This type includes a disorder called factitious disorder by proxy (also called Munchausen syndrome by proxy). People with this disorder produce or fabricate symptoms of illness in another person under their care. It most often occurs in mothers (although it can occur in fathers) who intentionally harm their children in order to receive attention. (The term "by proxy" means "through a substitute.") This type includes a disorder called factitious disorder by proxy (also called Munchausen syndrome by proxy). People with this disorder produce or fabricate symptoms of illness in another person under their care. It most often occurs in mothers (although it can occur in fathers) who intentionally harm their children in order to receive attention. (The term "by proxy" means "through a substitute.") What are the symptoms of factitious disorders? Dramatic but inconsistent medical history
Unclear symptoms that are not controllable, become more severe, or change once treatment has begun
Predictable relapses following improvement in the condition
Extensive knowledge of hospitals and/or medical terminology, as well as the textbook descriptions of illness
Presence of many surgical scars
Appearance of new or additional symptoms following negative test results
Presence of symptoms only when the patient is alone or not being observed
Willingness or eagerness to have medical tests, operations, or other procedures
History of seeking treatment at many hospitals, clinics, and doctors’ offices, possibly even in different cities
Reluctance by the patient to allow health care professionals to meet with or talk to family members, friends, and prior health care providers How are factitious disorders diagnosed? Due to the dishonesty involved, diagnosing factitious disorders is very difficult. In addition, doctors must rule out any possible physical and mental illnesses, and often use a variety of diagnostic tests and procedures before considering a diagnosis of factitious disorder. How are factitious disorders treated? The first goal of treatment is to modify the person’s behavior and reduce his or her misuse or overuse of medical resources. In the case of factitious disorder by proxy, the main goal is to ensure the safety and protection of any real or potential victims. Once the initial goal is met, treatment aims to resolve any underlying psychological issues that may be causing the person’s behavior or help them find solutions to housing or other social needs. The primary treatment for factitious disorders is psychotherapy (a type of counseling). Treatment likely will focus on changing the thinking and behavior of the individual with the disorder (cognitive-behavioral therapy). Family therapy also may be helpful in teaching family members not to reward or reinforce the behavior of the person with the disorder. There are no medications to actually treat factitious disorders. Medication may be used, however, to treat any related disorder, such as depression or anxiety. The use of medications must be carefully monitored in people with factitious disorders due to the risk that the drugs may never be picked up from the pharmacy or may be used in a harmful way. The origins of factitious disorder It is a 20th-century diagnosis, though the grounds for its introduction are uncertain. While previous authors have considered the social changes contributing to growth in the disorder, this article looks at some of the pressures on doctors that may have created the diagnostic need for a disorder between hysteria and malingering. The recent history of those disorders suggests that malingering would no longer be acceptable when applied to the potentially larger numbers involved in workers’ compensation or in mass conscription. Equally, the absolution given to hysteria on the basis of the Freudian subconscious would survive only as long as that model retained credibility. Growing egalitarianism and changing doctor—patient relationships in the 20th century would no longer tolerate a sharp division between culpable malingering and exculpated hysteria, which may previously have been made on grounds of class or gender. They would contribute to the need for a mediating diagnosis, such as factitious disorder. Facts and Tips about Factitious Disorder: • Factitious disorders are mental illnesses in which persons behave as they have physical or mental illness but in real they are not sick. • Patients intentionally create symptoms by hurting themselves, contaminating a urine sample, injecting bacteria to generate infection. • Patients of Factitious disorders only want special attention or sympathy from others or love once and not any financial gain. • Factitious disorders is divided into four types such as factitious disorder with psychological symptoms, factitious disorder with physical symptoms, factitious disorder with both psychological and physical symptoms, factitious disorder not otherwise specified. • Complications of factitious disorder are health problems because of multiple tests or hurting themselves. They may try for suicide and complication even results in death. • Factitious disorder is also related to Munchausen syndrome and somatoform disorders. Sources: http://www.yourwebtherapist.com/detail-226-70-.html http://www.yourwebtherapist.com/detail-226-70-.html
http://www.ask.com/wiki/Factitious_disorders
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/factitious_disorders/hic_an_overview_of_factitious_disorders.aspx
http://www.medicinenet.com/factitious_disorders/article.htm
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRVLOPL_vZSmgcI-3dQkFbaKsaP2hCh5zVMSovD36udMh0vpX4INQ&t=1
http://www.google.com/url?source=imgres&ct=img&q=http://www.naturalnews.com/cartoons/Doctors_thinking_600.jpg&sa=X&ei=5zCKTayWJOSK4gbirvSJDg&ved=0CAQQ8wc47QI&usg=AFQjCNGZgpOd9aziZbbpX5kLw0S_MPhJhA
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