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HISTORY OF ANIMATION, MOTION GRAPHICS & VISUAL EFFECTS

Brief history
by

Rita Ivanissevich

on 2 September 2016

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Transcript of HISTORY OF ANIMATION, MOTION GRAPHICS & VISUAL EFFECTS

HISTORY OF AN
I
MAT
I
ON,
MOTION GRAPHICS &
VISUAL
E
F
FECTS

His studio also used rotoscope for the first
Superman
cartoon series
ROTOSCOPING
The animator could
trace live action
frames projected onto a transparent easel, creating smooth, realistic action.
GRAPHIC ANIMATION
Winsor McCay
American famous through his comic strips and in his first animation
Little Nemo
in 1911, he sets a standard of
artistry and fluid action.
http://www.victorian-cinema.net/machines.htm
Théâtre Optique

A theatrical projection version of Reynaud's Praxinoscope, using a band of painted characters superimposed on a background projected from a separate lantern.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/trialsanderrors/2808931223/in/photostream

http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,702020,00.html
COMPUTER ANIMATION
STAR WARS
TRAILER
1977 - 2:04min
Introduction of
computer generated images
VISUAL EFFECTS
1955 -
The Man with the Golden Arm
(dir. by Preminger)
1958 -
Vertigo
(dir. by Hitchcock)
1959 -
Anatomy of a Murder

(dir by Preminger)
1960 -
Psycho
(dir by Hitchcock)
1920-1996
American Graphic designer, filmmaker,
best known for his design in animated motion picture title sequences.

He worked for some of Hollywood's greatest filmmakers: Alfred Hitchcock, Otto Preminger, Stanley Kubrick and Martin Scorsese.
FILM TITLE DESIGN SINCE 1950
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UPA_%28animation_studio%29
From the 1940s-70s UPA used
limited animation
style avoiding realism
UPA and TELEVISION
Snow White and
the Seven Dwarfs
1937, first full length animated feature film
The most influential pioneer in animation.
Steamboat Willie
sound was added to cartoon movies
1928 - 7:45min
WALT DISNEY
Eyewitness Books. Film. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Created by French science teacher
Émile Reynaud
in 1877
Phenakistoscope disc by
Eadweard Muybridge
, 1893‏

Toy invented by the Belgian
Joseph Plateau
in the 1830s.
The images and slits are on rotating disks
PHENAKISTOSCOPE
Popular toy
introduced in
the 1820s
THAUMATROPE
Optical toy known as “spinning wonder”.
Cardboard piece with a picture on each side and string handles at each end.
Pre-cinematic manual powered optical toys. Popular in the 19th century, they created animations based on persistence of vision
OPTICAL TOYS
http://www.watchthetitles.com/articles/00262-Dr_No

1925-1991
Born in New York City mostly worked in Britain.
Film title designer best known for his work on
14
James Bond films
1960 -
The Grass is Greene
(dir by Stanley Donen)
1968 -
Barbarella
w/ Jane Fonda, dir. by Roger Vadim
James Bond's:
1962 -
Dr. No

1967 -
You Only Live Twice

1971 -
Diamonds Are Forever
1974 -
The Man with the Golden Gun
1977 -
The Spy Who Loved Me
1983 -
Octopussy
1989 -
Licence to Kill
MAURICE BINDER
Progressive drawings of simple line characters and photographed frame by frame
on film.
Emile Cohl
is considered the
first cartoon
animator.
He applied all of the basic principles behind animated cartoons:
Fantasmagorie
1907 - 1:16min
Stop animation based on drawings, cutouts, claymation...
Small increments between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of frames are played as a continuous sequence.
Humorous Phases
of Funny Faces
by
James Stuart Blackton
1906 - 3:03min
EARLY TRADITIONAL ANIMATION
1897
Le squelette joyeux
http://www.mardecortesbaja.com/MeliesVoyage.JPG

1902-
Georges Méliès
(French filmaker)
demonstrated
stop-motion animation
, in which the
camera was stopped

and an object was moved, removed or added
to a shot before filming was resumed.
STOP MOTION
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kineograph
1st form of animation to employ a
linear sequence
of images instead of the
loop
used in optical toys.

The first
flip book
was patented in 1868 by
John Barnes Linnett
under the name of
kineograph
FLIPBOOK
http://brightbytes.com/collection/praxi.html
It incorporates the principle of the ZOETROPE with the addition of
lights
,
mirrors
, and
stage sets
becoming quite sophisticated
In this adaptation he replaced the slits on the outside of the drum with a set of mirrors in the center of the drum.
THE ZOETROPE
Invented in 1834 by British mathematician
William George Horner
http://brightbytes.com/collection/thaum.html
When it is spun around, each picture merges into a single image.

Peter Mark Roget,
British physician
1779 – 1869

“PERSISTENCE OF VISION”
The phenomenon called
Persistence of vision
was observed by
Peter Mark Roget
in 1824
Ray Harryhausen

American visual effects creator, writer and producer
created a form of stop-motion
model animation
known as
Dynamation
Jason and the Argonauts
Skeleton Fight
1963 - 2:18min
STOP MOTION - DYNAMATION
Bamboo Isle Royal Samoa Dance
Ghosts for breakfast

1927 - 6:28min
Hans Richter
(1888-1976) born in Berlin later worked in the U.S.
Painter, graphic artist, avant-gardist, film- experimenter and producer.
Return to Reason
- 1923

OTHER INTERESTING PIONEERS
Man Ray
: (1890-1976) American artist who lived in Paris, belonged to Dada and Surrealist movements. He was an Avant-garde photographer, noted for his photograms, which he renamed "rayographs" after himself.
Hurd Cel Patent
http://www.inkwellimagesink.com/pages/articles/CentennialOfAmericanAnimation.shtml
CEL ANIMATION
Earl Hurd
created the concept of tracing and painting animation drawings on celluloid and photographing them against a single illustrated background.
http://inventors.about.com/od/weirdmuseums/ig/Eadweard-Muybridge/The-Horse-in-Motion.htm
In 1878 Muybridge photographed
Horse in Motion
using many fast shutter cameras placed along the path of the horse.

The public was astonished to see proof that a running horse can simultaneously have all four hooves off the ground and not when the horse's legs were extended to the front and back, as imagined by contemporary illustrators, but when its legs were collected beneath its body.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge
motion capture in a sequence of still photographs

Eadweard James Muybridge
(1830 – 1904) English born photographer produced the majority of his work in the U.S.
Called the "Father of the motion picture" (even though he did not make films), he developed a
fast camera shutter
to make the first photographs that show sequences of movement.
He developed the
Zoopraxiscope
a device considered the first movie projector.
EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE
http://www.nfb.ca/playlists/dance-and-film-nfb/viewing/pas_de_deux_en/

Norman McLaren
Scottish-Canadian animator and film director known for his work for the
National Film Board of Canada

Pixilation
: uses live actors as stop-motion objects
STOP MOTION - PIXILATION
Oskar Fischinger
(1900-1967)
German-American abstract animator, filmmaker and painter. He made over 50 short animated films many of which are in museums and galleries.
The Adventures of Prince Achmed
1926 - 2:08min
Lotte Reiniger
: (1899-1981)
German animator and film director was inspired in Chinese art of silhouette puppetry and created many short silhouette animations.
Early Abstractions
1946-57 - 6min
Max Fleischer
(1883 –1972) patented his original
Rotoscope
in 1915
Max Fleischer's
classic characters:
Betty Boop
(1931)
Koko the Clown
(1928)
Popeye
(1933)
Betty Boop Hula Dance in Bamboo Isle
53 sec
47 sec
His studio took animation to a production level for the entertainment industry.
Gerald McBoingBoing
Mr. Magoo
UPA -United Productions of America
Mr Magoo Opening Theme
-
30sec
Toy Story
(1995)
Using
2D & 3D
animation, it is first full length
feature film animated entirely with computers.
Produced by Pixar Animation Studios
Released by Walt Disney Pictures
Director: Steven Spielberg
Stars: Leonardo DiCaprio

Title sequence by Olivier Kuntzel & Florence Deygas (uncredited
Catch me if you can
2002
FILM TITLE SEQUENCE
FBI agent hunts down a young con artist who successfully impersonated an airline pilot, a doctor, and an assistant attorney general.
Created and produced by Vince Gilligan
Stars Bryan Cranston
Breaking Bad from
From 2008 to 2013
TELEVISION SERIES OPEN CREDITS
GREENSCREEN COMPOSITING
Motion Picture Persistence of Vision: "How You See It" 1936 - 8min
Drawings appeared to move when viewed through slots of a rotating drum
Cameras, projectors and old motion picture equipment:
http://brightbytes.com/collection/flipbooks.html
Daumenkino

is the German word for flip book, literally
"thumb cinema"
Kinora
Why
do we see movement when the images are still?
Film Before Film - Phenakistoscope, Zootrope, Praxinoscope
3:36min
THE LUMIERE BROTHERS
Auguste
and
Louis Lumière
are credited with being the first filmmakers in history.
They patented the
cinematograph
, projector similar to current cinema
Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon
(Exit from the Lumière factory in Lyon) was shot in 1894 and released in 1895. It is considered the first real motion picture in history
A Trip to the Moon
Le Voyage dans la lune
by Georges Méliès, 1902 - 12:51min
(view moon changes at 6.04)
Silent animated cartoon created by hand-drawn scenes on a chalkboard.
First animation
recorded
on standard picture
film
Gertie the Dinosaur
in 1914
McCay interacts with his film on stage
1914
milestone of animation
cellulose acetate process
Pioneer in animation and filmmaking techniques: drawing images & sound directly on film and pixilation.
Neighbours

1952 - 8:17min
Academy Award-winning Short Film by Norman McLaren
1968 - 13:20min
Pas de deux
SAUL BASS
Vertigo
Opening sequence
1958 - 2:47min
Anatomy of a murder
title sequence
1959 - 2:36min
Dr. No
Opening titles - 2:37min
Many feature films use animation for visual effects since
Star Wars
(1977)
MOTION CAPTURE
Also known as
MOCAP
,

is the method of recording an actor’s
movements
using sensors and high speed cameras and applying the recorded information to a
3D model
Compositing
is the technique of combining different shots and elements into one image
In 2002, the character of
Gollum
in the second
Lord of the Rings
In 2009, in
Avatar
by
James Cameron
A breakthrough in cinema with its motion capture technology and 3D viewing (
stereoscopic
filmmaking)
Keying out a
greenscreen
creates a transparency to be replaced for another image
Usesd in newscasting, motion picture and videogame industries
The Matrix
- 1999
The Avengers
- 2012
COLOR FINISHING
The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo
(Opening Credits) 2011 - 2:25min
Color grading
is the process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture, video image, or still image either
electronically
,
photo-chemically
or
digitally
by Auguste & Louis Lumière
Music By Federico Albanese
PRAXINOSCOPE
Still images seen in rapid succession give the illusion of movement due to the delay of the image that the brain holds and the next image that the eye perceives.
OPTICAL TOYS
The Great Gatsby
- 2013)
Visual Effects Before & After
FILM TITLE SEQUENCE
The Matrix Reloade
- 2003
The Matrix
- 1999
3D Scanning & 3D Printing

The Avengers: Age of Ultron
End Credits - 2015
Full transcript