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Transcript of Physics Timeline
1.All matter consists of invisible particles called atoms.
2. Atoms are indestructible.
3. Atoms are solid but invisible.
4. Atoms are homogenous.
5. Atoms differ in size, shape, mass, position, and arrangement.
->Solids are made of small, pointy atoms.
->Liquids are made of large, round atoms.
->Oils are made of very fine, small atoms that can easily slip past each other. Democritus's main contributuion to the atomic model was identifying the atom. 430 BC 1860 1890 1920 1950 1980 1760 John Dalton: 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844 Dalton had an extreme interest in meteorology. He recorded the weather records for 46 years. He was the first to construct a table of atomic weights. His theory states that:
1.All matter consists of tiny particles
2.Atoms are indestructible and unchangeable
3.Elements are characterized by the mass of there atoms
4.When Elements react, their atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios
The image shows several different elements and there atomic mass’s according to Daltons theory.
Dalton was responsible for the beginnig of the atomic model Max Planck April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947 was the person who originated the idea of the Quantum theory. Which was the theory based on the area of physics that dealt with the atom and microscopic particles. This is an area of physics that is still being worked on today and is one of the most complex types of physics. This is an image of today’s model of an atom that has been derived from Planck’s first concept of Quantum theory 1918 Niels Bohr: 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 Niels Bohr won the noble prize in Physics in 1922. He won because of his contributions to the atomic model and quantum mechanics. He developed the model of the atom with the nucleus in the center and electrons in orbit around it. He worked on the idea in quantum mechanics that electrons move from orbit to orbit. Another one of his contributions to science was determining that chemical properties of an element are determined by its outermost layer.
In the diagram each orbit represents a different layer with a different amount of electrons in each. 1922 1929 Louis De Broglie: 1892-1987 He believed that electrons could act like both particles and waves, just like light. He also said that waves produced by electrons contained in the orbit around the nucleus, set up a standing wave of a certain energy, frequency, and wavelength. He discovered that electrons could act like waves. The picture represents how an electron can act like a wave and the formula that proves that it can. 1923 Robert Millikan: March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953 He won the noble prize in 1923. He created an experiment called the “oil drop” experiment and a “photoelectric” experiment. He used the oil drop experiment to determine the electrons charge. In his oil drop experiment he dropped the oil drops and measured the velocity and the mass of each drop. From this he could figure out the charge of the electrons 1932 Werner Heisenberg: December 1901 – 1 February 1976 He stated that observation interfered with the location and velocity of small particles, such as electrons. This is correct because observation requires light and light has momentum. When light bounces off an electron the momentum causes it to lose speed and change location. 1933 Erwin Schrodinger: 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961 Schrodinger's wave equation was based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principal that the position and velocity of a electron cannot be determined accurately Schrodinger's wave equation gave a wave function, which squared gave the probability cloud of electrons. This means that, Schrodinger's contribution resulted in the electron cloud model of the atom. The diagram shows the electron clouds orbiting around the nucleus. 1917 Ernest Rutherford: 30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937 He created an experiment that something dense and positively charged existed in the nucleus. Also he proved that most of the atom was just empty space, disregarding the nucleus. One of his most famous experiments was the gold foil experiment. The experiment suggested that most of the mass resided in the small nucleus and that the rest was mainly just empty space. The following is an image of the expirment performed. 1906
J.J Thompson 18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940 was the physicist who came forth with the idea of isotopes and the electron. He was awarded a Nobel Prize for his discovery of the electron in 1906. He achieved this through an experiment called the Cathode ray experiment, which was the use of a glass tube in which light rays were he discovered some light was being reflected by electrical fields therefore he made the conclusion that within each atom consisted of a smaller particle with a charge. This picture shows the an example of the experiment that was performed to prove the existence of the electron. 1932 James Chadwick 20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974, he was one of the main contributors to the Manhattan project and was the founder of the neutron. The discovery of the neutron was his biggest accomplishments in which he discovered around 1932, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his contribution to physics. This was achieved through a complex experiment in which alpha particles were sent into a rare element beryllium and then reflected to hydrogen which caused a radiation which was put through a detecting chamber that led to the discovery of a neutrally charged particle. This was a key factor in the study of nuclear-fission the following is a diagram of the expirment performed. 1965 Richard Feynman May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988 was a theoretical physicist who outlined the behavior of subatomic particles, this is called Feynman Diagrams. These diagrams were pictorial representations of what a subatomic particle does, they required the conversion of complex mathematical formulas that were used to explain subatomic particles into a visual representation. This picture is a representation of a diagram made using Feynman’s ways. 1905 Albert Einstein 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955, was a major influence to the science world because of his many discoveries most famously his photoelectric effect discovery. This was the proof of light carrying particle like behavior, the experiment was consisted of a light source being shot onto a surface of a metal at a controlled frequency, and the result was the ejection of electrons. This led to the idea of photons, instead of waves. This can be seen in the image. Einstein was also very critical of Quantum theory which pushed Bohr to continue his work to farther change the atomic model. 1945 Wolfgang Pauli 1900-1958, he was the physicist to come up with the Pauli Exclusion Principle which was based on quantum mechanics. The principle stated that no two electrons can share the same quantum state at the same time. He also brought forth the idea of the neutrino which is neutral particles with low masses that are spinning, this changed the atomic model. The picture is a representation of a neutrino within an atom. 1890 Ludwig Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was a scientist who made many contributions in Kinetic theory and thermo-dynamics. His most famous work was probably the new way he formed to calculate the properties of atoms. This was used within gases, so that they could therefore determine the velocity of the particles. 1926
Max Born 11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970, was a physicists who started the early stages of Quantum Mechanics by developing Matrix mechanics. This was the explanation of quantum jumps which was the transition of the electron from one state to another. This gave a better understanding of the movement of atoms and all particles within it, this was the beginning of the new era for physics in quantum mechanics. The picture is a simple diagram of electron movement.