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Equality and Diversity

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Christina Kennedy

on 5 August 2014

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Transcript of Equality and Diversity

Equality and Diversity
Ground Rules

Hear and respect what others have to say
Only One Person Speaks (OOPS)
Ask Questions
Be Open and Honest
Respect Confidentiality
Mobile phones off or on silent


Equality & Diversity
Lifeline Policy
Direct/Indirect Discrimination
Be Aware Of:

Stereotypical behaviours
Discriminatory Attitudes
And how to challenge them
Be able to:

Support Equality & Value Diversity
Protected Characteristics
Religion or Beliefs
Group Activity
What is Equality?

What is Diversity?
Equality is ensuring individuals or groups of individuals are treated fairly and equally and no less favourably, specific to their needs, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation and age.

Equality of opportunity
Exists if everyone has the same or near-similar chances to achieve their end goal (for instance through educational success or seeking employment)
Equality of opportunity says nothing about the final outcomes which may be highly unequal in terms of...
of how fair or equal conditions are at
before the race
Diversity aims to recognise, respect and value people’s differences to contribute and realise their full potential by promoting an inclusive culture for all.
"We may have all come on different ships, but we're all on the same boat now."

Martin Luther King
"It is difference of opinion that makes horse races"
Mark Twain
"We have become not a melting pot but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams"
Jimmy Carter
Group Activity
What are some of the potential barriers to inclusion?
Barriers to Inclusion
Negative Attitudes
Lack of physical access
Lack of opportunity for progression
Lack of opportunity for social inclusion
Inaccessable formats
Inappropriate forms of communication
Types of Diversity
Age Diversity
Gender Diversity
All women in the workplace were automatically assigned to temporary, part-time or low responsibility jobs
There was a widespread expectation, caused by traditional values, that women stay at home and look after the family rather than having a career
Diversity of Abilities
Today women are treated as equals within the workforce
was likely to quit when married
was likely to quit when she became pregnant
There was widespread belief that women were not as capable as men physically, mentally or emotionally. There was also widespread belief that...
Most women in the work force do not see their job as something to do until they are married, with many more career focussed women in today's society.
Ethnic Diversity
"Not Sweden, South Korea, Norwegian. We hire individuals. We don't care what your surname is. Because ambition and determination have nothing to do with your nationality. McDonald's is one of the most integrated companies in Sweden, with as many as ninety-five nationalities working for us. Join us."
Workers with disabilities often struggle with preconceptions from their co-workers
Although it is undeniable that certain physical or mental impairments do necessarily exclude people from performing certain tasks,with the right support each disabled individual can still perform most tasks as equally as their co-workers.
Social Diversity
Different Lifestyles
Different Religions
Different Hobbies
Group Activity
What are some of the challenges presented by diversity?

What are some of the benefits of diversity?
Variety of viewpoints
Increase in Productivity
Increase in Creativity
Language Skills
Positive Reputation
Increase in cost of training
Reverse discrimination
Impaired Freedom of Speech
Competition rather than teamwork
Failure to respect others & resistance to change if people don't understand the values of diversity
If a group of men are talking, what do you assume they are talking about?

Split into two groups
If a group of women are talking, what do you assume they are talking about?

Group Activity
What are stereotypes?
A stereotype is a generalization, or assumption, that people make about the characteristics of all members of a "group." They are normally based on the protected characteristics
Some stereotypes are blatant such as "They all look the same" or "They are all...". Some people may say it is a "joke" or "banter" but regardless of the packaging all stereotypes are based on the same thought process where individuals are clumped together as members of a group with no knowledge of individual differences.
Stereotypes tend to have three main characteristics:

1. They imply that all people in that specific group are the same Eg:
"All men are aggressive"
"All women are emotional"
2. They contain a judgment. Notice that the judgment often reveals more
about the stereotyper’s beliefs or expectations than it does about the
stereotyped individual.
3.Stereotypes are fairly inflexible. When we encounter someone who does not fit our stereotype it's easier to consider that person "the exception that proves the rule", rather than question the validity of the stereotype.
Group Activity
Can you think of a time when you have felt stereotyped?

Discuss in pairs:
What happened?
Can you think of a time when you stereotyped another person/saw someone being stereotyped?
What happened?
TV Characters
Group Activity
Write a brief description of each of the characters in the pictures, based on what you've seen on television.
What might the impact of these stereotypes be on someone who has never met any one from one of these groups?
What might the impact be on someone who is from from one of the stereotyped groups?
Combating Stereotypes
Respect each person as a unique individual
Be willing to accept and respect cultural differences
Remember that even within a group, there are individual differences
Learn more about other groups through interaction, attending cultural events, reading, attending workshops, taking classes
Take time to get to know someone regardless of your differences
Suspend judgement and remember, our first impressions are not always correct
Ask yourself how you would feel if you were the one being stereotyped
Effects of Stereotypes
They distort what we think about a whole group of people
They can perpetrate misunderstandings
The people who are being stereotyped may start to believe negative images about themselves (particularly children)
They may prevent us from accepting persons from another group/culture
They often make people feel isolated
Even if they are positive stereotypes, they put pressure on people being stereotyped and do not allow for individual differences.
Fire Procedure
We will be having a break after 45 minutes
Careful of any res for electrical equipment to avoid trips and falls
Gender Reassignment
Marriage and Civil Partnership
Pregnancy & Maternity
Sexual Orientation
The Act applies to a range of people that have a condition (physical or mental) which has a significant and long-term adverse effect on their ability to carry out ‘normal’ day-to-day activities. This protection also applies to people that have been diagnosed with a progressive illness such as HIV or cancer.
The Act protects lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and heterosexual people.
Previously referred to as gender. Applies to male or female.
The Act covers any religion, religious or non-religious beliefs. Also includes philosophical belief or non-belief. To be protected, a belief must satisfy various criteria, including that it is a weighty and substantial aspect of human life and behaviour. Denominations or sects within a religion can be considered a protected religion or religious belief.
The Act protects people of all ages. The age specific protections have not yet been fully implemented and age is still the only protected characteristic by which direct or indirect discrimination can be justified (if it can be argued that treating someone differently because of their age is meeting a legitimate aim).
This includes colour, ethnic / national origin or nationality.
The Act protects employees who are married or in a civil partnership against discrimination. Single people are not protected.
The definition of gender reassignment has been expanded to include people who chose to live in the opposite gender to the gender assigned to them at birth by removing the previously legal requirement for them to undergo medical supervision.
A woman is protected against discrimination on the grounds of pregnancy and maternity. With regard to employment, the woman is protected during the period of her pregnancy and any statutory maternity leave to which she is entitled. Also, it is unlawful to discriminate against women breastfeeding in a public place.
The Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful to discriminate against people with a ‘protected characteristic’ (previously known as equality strands / grounds).
As a group can you name the 9 protected characteristics from the Equality Act 2010?
Group Activity
Protected Characteristics
A variety of ages amongst a team brings with it a variety of thought processes, ideas and viewpoints
Although we are still far from perfect with regards to men and women's rights, gender politics and diversity have come a long way in recent history
Although we have come a long way in terms of gender equality, Women's Institute research (2010) states:
Social Class Diversity
Social and class issues are notoriously difficult to define. If someone comes from a working-class background, are the first person from their family to attend university, or live in an area where hardly anyone goes to university, they may have less support at home or information when it comes to progressing into employment.
Various governments have tried to improve social mobility and most employers are aware of the benefits of recruiting a socially diverse workforce.
Although social inequality is recognised in the employment market, at present there’s no legislation to prevent employers discriminating against applicants and workers on the basis of social class. The Equality Act 2010 does not include social background as a protected characteristic.
What is a stereotype?
Group Activity
"We all use stereotypes, all the time, without knowing it. We have met the enemy of equality, and the enemy is us."
(Paul, 1998)
Group Activity
Where do stereotypes come from?
Where do stereotypes come from?
Social Learning
Simply put, we learn stereotypes from parents (our first and most influential teachers), significant others (e.g., peers), and the media.
Another explanation for how we form stereotypes comes from research in cognitive psychology on the categorization process. People like to, want to, need to categorize both the social and physical world, into preferably neat little groups. They inevitably do so for 3 reasons:
Cognitive Psychology & Categorization Process
once you have categorized you no longer need to consider information about each individual member of the group. You can apply all of the group information to all of its members.
It's Cognitively Efficient
it satisfies the need to understand and predict the social world. You no longer need to wonder what each individual is like (understand), or what he or she is likely to do (predict). All of this is contained in the stereotype.
Understanding and Prediction
it’s a way to feel better about yourself; we thing our groups (ingroups) are better than other groups (outgroups)
Enhance Social Identity
Positive Action
Positive Discrimination
What is Positive Action?
'Positive action' refers to a range of measures and initiatives that employers can lawfully take to actively encourage individuals from under-represented groups to apply. The selection procedure itself is no different, and must be based solely on merit.
Eg: MASH may encourage women applicants due to the nature of the work they do with vulnerable women in Manchester
What is Positive Discrimination?
(in the context of the allocation of resources or employment) the practice or policy of favouring individuals belonging to groups which suffer discrimination.
Legal Framework
Equal Pay Act 1970
Sex Discrimination Act (1975)
Gender Reassignment Regulations (1999)
Human Rights Act (1998)
Carers Equal Opportunities Act (2004)
Race Relations Act (1976)
Amendment (2000)
Disability Discrimination Act (1995)
Employment Equality Religion or Belief Regulations 2003
Employment Equality Sexual Orientation Regulations (2003)
Equality Act (2010) incorporates all of the above
Lifeline's Equal Opportunities Policy can be found on the policies website at:

Any Questions?
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