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Frederick Douglass (Brief)
Transcript of Frederick Douglass (Brief)
1825- Sophia Auld teaches him to read. Hugh Auld complains. Douglass continues to read and bribes poor children for help.
1818-Born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey in Tuckahoe, Talbot County, Maryland
Parents: Harriet Bailey and father is rumored to be his master, Aaron Anthony
1847 -moves to NY
Betsey Bailey at Holme
on Great House Farm, plantation
Colonel Edward Lloyd
1825-Sees his mother for the last time
1825-His mother dies
1826-Sent to Baltimore to live with Hugh Auld and his wife Sophia.
His master, Aaron Anthony, dies late in the year; Douglass becomes the property of Thomas Auld, Anthony's son-in-law. Thomas Auld sends him back to Hugh Auld
1825- 1832 lived with Aulds
Works in shipyard as general assistant; practices reading and writing in secret
Learns of the abolitionist movement.
Buys a collection of speeches,
The Columbian Orator, with which he
polishes his reading and speaking skills.
A Review of Douglass' Narrative
English 12 and MC Literature
1833-Sent to St. Michaels, Maryland,
worked for Thomas Auld
Taught other to read until Auld discovers it
and stops him
1833-Auld rents him out to
known as a "slave breaker."
He is beaten several times and
finally fights back. Covey
never tries to beat
, a Talbot County, Maryland, farmer
-Organized Sunday school and taught others
1836-Makes an escape plan but is discovered, jailed, and then released.
He returns to work for Hugh and Sophia Auld in Baltimore and is hired out to work as a caulker in a Baltimore shipyard. The knowledge he gains there helps him escape slavery two years later.
1837-Joins the East Baltimore Mental Improvement Society, a debating club of free black men.
Through the society, he meets a free housekeeper, Anna Murray.
September 3, 1838-Borrowing papers from a free African-American sailor, he escapes from to New York and changes
his last name to Johnson.
September 15, 1838-Marries Anna Murray
The ceremony is performed by minister James W. C. Pennington, who is also an escaped Maryland slave.
1838-The newlyweds move to New Bedford, Massachusetts, where Frederick works as an unskilled laborer. They stay with caterers Mary and Nathan Johnson. Nathan suggests that Frederick take on the last name Douglas, from a character in Sir Walter Scott's poem '"The Lady of the Lake." He does so, spelling it Douglass. He then tries to get a job as a caulker, but white workers threaten to quit if he is hired.
1841- Begins life as a speaker-
Speaks at an antislavery meeting in New Bedford, Massachusetts.
Abolitionist William C. Coffin convinces him into speaking about his life as a slave at a Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society convention.
William Lloyd Garrison follows his remarks with a speech of his own, encouraging Douglass. The Society is impressed, and he is hired as a speaker.
1843-At an antislavery meeting in Pendleton, Indiana, he is beaten by a mob. His right hand is broken in the scuffle, and he never fully recovers the use of his hand.
1845-Publishes Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.
In it, he reveals details that could lead to his arrest as a fugitive slave. He meets Susan B. Anthony while on a speaking tour. Later he becomes a champion of women's rights. Begins tour of Great Britain and Ireland, lecturing on slavery with abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. English friends raise money to "purchase" his freedom; Douglass is manumitted after Hugh Auld receives $711.66 in payment.
1848-Participant in first women's rights convention, Seneca Falls, New York. Meets and becomes acquaintance of abolitionist John Brown. Begins sheltering escaped slaves fleeing north on the "underground railroad." Daughter Rosetta is asked to leave school in Rochester because she is African-American; Douglass begins struggle to end segregation in Rochester public schools.
1851-Merges North Star with Gerrit Smith's Liberty Party Paper to form Frederick Douglass' Paper (printed until 1860). Agrees with Smith that the Constitution is an antislavery document, reversing his earlier statements that it was proslavery, an opinion he had shared with William Lloyd Garrison. This change of opinion, as well as some political differences, create a rift between Douglass and Garrison. Douglass begins to assert his independence in the antislavery movement.
1855-Publication of his second autobiography, My Bondage and My Freedom
1856-He befriends Ottilia Assing, a German journalist living in New Jersey. She eventually translates My Bondage and My Freedom into German.
1859-Begins publishing Douglass' Monthly, first as a supplement to Frederick Douglass' Paper. It becomes an independent publication the following year and is distributed until 1863.
1861-The Civil War begins
1862-Congress abolishes slavery in Washington, D.C.
1863-Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation takes effect, abolishing slavery in the states that are "in rebellion." Douglass becomes a recruiter for the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, the first regiment of African-American soldiers; his sons Lewis and Charles join the regiment. Eventually his son Frederick Douglass, Jr. becomes an army recruiter also.
About 180,000 African-Americans serve in the Civil War on the Union side. Meets with President Lincoln to discuss the unequal pay and poor treatment black soldiers receive.
August 19, 1864-Meets with Lincoln again. In case the war is not a total Union victory, Lincoln asks Douglass to prepare an effort to assist slaves escaping to the North
April 14, 1865-Lincoln is assassinated
December 18, 1865-The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, outlawing slavery, is ratified
1865-Douglass starts lecturing on Reconstruction and Women's Rights
1870-Edits and then owns the New National Era, a weekly newspaper for African Americans. He loses ten thousand dollars when the paper folds in 1874. Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution adopted. This amendment states that the rights of citizens to vote cannot be denied "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
1871-President Ulysses S. Grant appoints Douglass to the commission investigating the possibility of annexing the Dominican Republic to the U.S.
1872-The Equal Rights Party nominates Douglass for vice-president of the United States on a ticket headed by Victoria C. Woodhull. Douglass moves his family to Washington, D.C., after a mysterious fire destroys his home in Rochester. He attributes the fire to arson.
1875-Congress passes a Civil Rights Act prohibiting discrimination in public places
1877-appointed as U.S. Marshall of the District of Columbia by President Hayes
1878-Purchases Cedar Hill, in Anacostia, Washington, D.C. The twenty-room house sits on nine acres of land. He later expands the estate by buying fifteen acres of adjoining land.
1881-Publishes his third and final autobiography, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass.
President Garfield appoints one of his friends to the post of U.S. Marshall and makes Douglass recorder of deeds for the District of Columbia.
August 4, 1882-Douglass' wife of forty-four years, Anna Murray Douglass, dies after suffering a stroke. Douglass goes into a depression.
1883-The U.S. Supreme Court rules the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional.
January 24, 1884-Douglass marries Helen Pitts, a white woman who had been his secretary when he was recorder of deeds. The interracial marriage causes controversy among the Douglass' friends, family, and the public.
Tours Europe and Africa with wife
July 1, 1889-Appointed U.S. minister resident and consul general, Republic of Haiti, and chargé d'affaires, Santo Domingo. Arrives in Haiti in October.
1890-The U.S. government instructs Douglass to ask permission for the U.S. Navy to use the Haitian port town of Môle St. Nicholas as a refueling station.
1891-In April Haiti rejects the Navy's proposal as too intrusive. The U.S. press reports that Douglass is too sympathetic to Haitian interests. Douglass resigns as minister to Haiti in July.
1892-1893 Douglass is commissioner in charge of the Haitian exhibit at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago
February 20, 1895
Speaks at a meeting of the National Council of Women in Washington, D.C.
Dies suddenly that evening of heart failure while describing the meeting to his wife
English 12 and MC Lit