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Gerunds and Infinitives
Transcript of Gerunds and Infinitives
Infinitive of Purpose: In order to
Adjectives Followed by Infinitives
Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by infinitives. In general, these adjectives describe a person, not a thing. Many of these adjectives describe a person's feelings or attitudes(e.g. sorry, surprised).
In speaker's mind, the use of "too" implies a negative results.
Gerunds : Introduction
A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not."
In order to is used to express purpose . It answers the question "Why". "In order" is often omitted .
Using Infinitives with Too and Enough
"Enough" follows an adjective. Usually, "enough" precedes a noun. In formal English,
it may follow a noun.
Passive Inifitives: to be +past participle(e.g. to be asked)
Using Gerund or passive Infinitives Follwing Need
Usually, an infinitive follows "need".
In certain circumstances, a gerund may follow "need". In this case, the gerund carries a passive meaning.Usually the situations involve fixing or improving something
Common Verbs Followed by Infinitive
Using Gerunds as the Objects of Preposition
A gerund frequently used as the object of a preposition.
"To" is a preposition.
Negative form: "not" precedes a gerund.
Common Verbs Followed by Gerunds
Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. Some phrasal verbs are followed by gerunds(e.g. enjoy, quit, and give up).
Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express, for the most part,recreational activities(e.g. go shopping, go fishing).
Special Expressions Followed by -ing
-ing forms follow certain special expressions:
have fun/good time + -ing
have trouble/difficulty+ -ing
have a hard time /difficult time + -ing
Spend/waste+ expression of time or money+ -ing
sit/stand/lie+ expression of place+ -ing
find/catch+ (pro)noun + -ing
Passive Gerund : being + past participle(e.g. being asked)
An infinitive= to + the simple from of a verb.
Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive(e.g. hope, promise) .
Negative form: not precedes the infinitives.
Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun object and then an infinitive(e.g. tell sb to).
These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive.
Some verbs have two patterns(e.g. expect):
verb+ object+ infinitive
Common Verbs Followed by Either Infinitives or gerunds
Verb+ Infinitives or gerunds ,with no difference in meaning (e.g. begin, like, hate, start, love, can't stand, continue, prefer, and can't bear)
Verb+ Infinitives or gerunds ,with a difference in meaning (e.g. remember, regret, stop, forget, and try)
It + Infinitive; Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects
Often an infinitive phrase is used with ''it" as the subject of a sentence.The word "it" refers to and have the same meaning as the infinitive phrase at the end of sentence.
A gerund phrase and an infinitive can be used as the subject of a sentence,but far more commonly an infinitive phrase is used with "it".
Using Verbs of Perception
Using the Simple Form after Let and Help
Less common, "help" is follwed by an infinitive
Using Causative Verb: Make, Have,Get
Make, have, and get can be used to express the idea that "X" causes "Y" to do something. When they used as causative verbs,they are followed by the simple form of a verb.
Certain verbs of perception are followed by either the simple form r the -ing from of a verb(see, hear).
Sometimes, they have the some meaning, except that the -ing form emphasizes the idea of "while".
Sometimes, there is a clear difference between them
Mark and Melody
Betty S. Azar, Stacy A. Hagen. 2009. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 4th ed.
Notes: More common preposition combination followed by gerunds are listed on the paper that I have given you
Notes: More common verbs followed by gerunds are listed on the paper that I have given you
Notes: More "Go + Gerund" are listed on the paper that I have given you
Notes: More of these three types verbs are listed on the paper that I have given you
Notes: More common adjectives followed by infinitives are listed on the paper that I have given you
Notes: More common verbs of perception followed by the simple form -ing form are listed on the paper that I have given you