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Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

The relationship between space and crime, and techniques of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.

Alicia Joanna

on 27 March 2013

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Transcript of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

Explanation Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Space and Crime Introduction Access Control Natural Surveillance Supporting Theories Routine Activities Theory Observations Conclusion Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

According to Crowe (2002):
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) involves architecture design, space management, & urban planning.

Overlapping strategies that create CPTED:
Access control, natural surveillance, maintenance & territorial reinforcement. Agenda

1) Crime Prevention through
Design History.
2) Access Control.
3) Natural Surveillance.
4) Territorial Reinforcement.
5) Maintenance.
6) Supporting Theories.
7) Recommendations.
8) Conclusion. Territorial Reinforcement Explanation

An environment designed to clearly delineate private space (Atlas, 2008).

Using buildings, fences, pavement, signs, lighting and landscape to express ownership and define public, semi-public and private space, natural territorial reinforcement occurs (Mandilbilt, 2001). References Thank You! Access Control :

Directed at reducing crime by denying accesses to a crime target and creating perception of risk in offenders ("Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design", n.d.). Natural Surveillance:

Increased the perception that people can be seen. Territorial Reinforcement

Gives community members a sense of ownership and pride. As a result, it makes strangers feel unwelcome or stand out (Reynald, 2010).
Atlas, R. I. (2008) [21st Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection Crime and Prevention]. Retrieved from http://www.crcnetbase.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/doi/pdf/10.1201/9781420068085.ch6

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.bchousing.org/resources/Partner_Resources/Operating_Housing/CPTED-specs.pdf
Costhelper. (2012). Retrieved November 25, 2012, from http://home.costhelper.com/sidewalk-repair.html

Dunham, J., Eck, J., & Sampson, R. (2010). Super controllers and crime prevention: A routine activity explanation of crime prevention success and failure. Security Journal, 23, 37–51. doi: 10.1057/sj.2009.17

Gyimah-Brempong, K. (2001). Alcohol availability and crime: Evidence from census tract data. Southern Economic Journal, 68 (1), 2-12. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/docview/212135746?accountid=14694

Mandilbilt, D. B. (2001). New approach to crime prevention. Security, 38(4), 57-58. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/docview/197775866?accountid=14694

McCormick., J. (2011). National Evaluation of Crime Prevention Strategies in urban parks: using rational choice theory to understand decisions of park directors and professors. Retrieved on November 18th 2012 from ProQuest Database

Reynald, M.D. (2010) Translating CPTED into Crime Preventive Action: A Critical Examination of CPTED as a Tool for Active Guardianship. Eur J. Crim Policy Res, 17, 69-81 DOI 10.1007/s10610-010-6-9135

Sampson, R. J. and Raudenbush, S.W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology 105, no. 3: 603-651. doi:10.1086/210356

Szekely,R. (February 09, 2012) UOIT Renews Oshawa’s Downtown Retrieved From: http://www.durhamregion.com/community/education/article/1294377--uoit-campus-renews-oshawa-s-downtown

The Cost of a Concrete Sidewalk. (2012). Retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/facts_5977370_cost-concrete-sidewalk.html This can be applied to sidewalks,
buildings, and other points of
access by the use of lighting,
fences, walls, and locks. Our pathway sees access
control in the form of differing sidewalk and outlying bricks,
trees, etc. Limiting access to the area
by discouraging or denying entry completely to would-be offenders. Outline:
Lighting & architecturally reinforced sight lines

Maximized visibility.

Creates concept that someone is always watching.

Enhances sense of security.

Creates positive social interaction. 3 key components:
Suitable target
Likely offender
Lack of guardianship

*Natural Surveillance is
key to decreasing the risk of crime. Oshawa action plan in 2005 was to Install dual lighting

Single arm and a light over traffic lanes.

One arm over traffic lanes and the other over sidewalks.

Dual lighting is used north of city hall and in front of city hall.

Street lights are approximately 50 feet apart from one another on the pathway. Rational Choice Theory Broken Windows Theory Calculating cost and benefits of the decisions.

Criminals will make the choice that
they can benefit the most from with the least amount of risk and cost. CPTED Maintenance Maintenance
If a building, path, or structure is maintained well, it gives the impression that the area is well cared for with levels of security because someone is looking out for the well-being of the path ("Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design," n.d.). Recommendations Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Cracked Sidewalk (November, 2012). [Photograph]. Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Broken Sidewalk (November, 2012). [Photograph]. Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Cement Footprins (November,2012). [Photograph]. Our group directly observed that the lights were very effective at illuminating the pathway.

We also noticed many people leaving bars around this time and some of those people being arrested. Cost: $75-1000

Trim trees along pathway, so it prevents natural sight-line from being blocked on second floor buildings. Street Lighting Mechanical surveillance through lighting and CCTV has demonstrated that it helps prevent “property crimes” more so than “violent Crimes” (Reynald, 2010)

Research conducted by Flemming & Burrows found that after lighting improvements were made in 3 areas around London crime, “disorder, and fear of crime declined and pedestrian street use increased dramatically after.” Lighting improvements provide a more thorough natural surveillance.

Improved street lighting can act as a catalyst in the environment.

Studies conducted in 8 American and 5 British cities found that crime decreased in experimental areas on an average of 25% due to changes in lighting. Figure 2. Bench along pathway Figure 2.1. Parking meter Figure 2.2. Newspaper and magazine dispensers Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Bench (November 7, 2012). [Photograph]. Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Parking meter (November 7, 2012). [Photograph]. Quotes Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Magazines dispenser (November 7, 2012). [Photograph]. Ways to Enhance

Proper lighting

Use convex mirrors

CCTV cameras

Glass/ plexiglass windows and doors

Iron fences

Security guards Figure 3. Cameras on Bordessa Hall building [edit] Sheppard. J. (Photographer). ( September 22, 2012). Surveillance Cameras [Photograph]. Figure 7. Natural surveillance line of sight Figure 4. Territorial reinforcement diagram Three elements: offenders, targets and places.

Crime is likely a result of when offenders meet targets at place where this is absence or lack of a guardian. Figure 4.1. Differentiating brick patterning [edit] Qureshi, O. (Photographer). Brick Pattern (November 5, 2012). [Photograph] Figure 11. Cracked sidewalks Figure 11.1. Gaps in sidewalk slabs Figure 11.2. Footprints encased in cement Created by Gopaul, A. (2012) Paint creation] Figure 6 Routine Activities Theory venn diagram Figure 8. Scale representing Rational Choice Theory Figure 12. Murphy's bar Figure 12.1. Police presence [edit] Figure 12.2. Hidden doorway Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Doorway (November 7, 2012). [Photograph]. Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Police Presence (November 7, 2012). [Photograph]. Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Doorway (November 7, 2012). [Photograph]. Figure 14. Streetview of Bond Street westbound Oshawa, ON. (15 Nov. 2012). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved from http://uoit.ca/maps/uoit/?camp=d&b=55B Summary

UOIT's movement to the downtown core, the public already feels as though the presence has increased safety (Szekely, 2012).

We believe that our recommendations on CPTED changes are both cost-effective and realistic.

The only recommendation that may be slightly more difficult to obtain would be the cameras. Atlas, R. I. (2008) [21st Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection Crime and Prevention]. Retrieved from http://www.crcnetbase.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit.ca/doi/pdf/10.1201/9781420068085.ch6 Cost: cost effective solution—FREE

create a group between Graduate students, undergraduates in criminology program.
Members of community.
Faculty members of social sciences.

To Discuss concerns/ problems/ issues
Creates positive social interaction and cohesion among UOIT and the community Figure 18. Neighbourhood watch committee City of Burlington, 2012. [Advisory Committee]. Retrieved from: http://cms.burlington.ca/Page3328.aspx Cost:$150-500/ camera (outdoor cttv camera) depending on brand and quality, although any will work.

Suggestion: to install along designated pathways along UOIT buildings. Possibly 3-5 cameras. Figure 13. Surveillance camera CCTV Camera Pros. November 25, 2012. [BIPRO-S600VF12-1]. Retrieved from: http://www.cctvcamerapros.com/Best-CCTV-Surveillance-Cameras-s/406.htm $50 to $150 per sign plus $150 /sign in installation costs.

Approximate installation costs are $100 for a marked crosswalk with two transverse lines.

SUGGESTION: Place marked cross-walk with signage and lights on Bond St. E connecting the North and South street of Ontario St. Figure 17. Crosswalk signage WalkingInfo. November 25, 2012. [Sign Street-Crossing]. Retrieved from: http://www.walkinginfo.org/engineering/crossings-signals.cfm Felson , M . ( 2008 ) Routine activity theory . In: R. Wortley and L. Mazerolle (eds.) Environmental
Criminology and Crime Analysis . Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing , pp. 70 – 77 Clarke, R. V. (1995). Situational crime prevention. building a safer society:
Strategic approaches to crime prevention, Crime and Justice, 19; 91-150. Lancaster Community Safety Coalition, n.d.. [Natural surveillance sight}. Retrieved from http://www.lancastercsc.org/CPTED/Natural_Surveillance.html Hastings on nonviolence, September 2011. [Justice Scale]. Retrieved from http://hastingsnonviolence.blogspot.ca/2011_09_01_archive.html Figure 10. Building for lease Pelegrin, J.(Photographer). Empty Building (November 7, 2012). [Photograph]. Environmental cues such as graffiti, broken windows, abandoned properties and signs of dilapidation in general promote an image of vulnerability and leads to crime
(Sampson & Raudenbush, 1999). Shepeard, J.(Photographer). Broken Window on building along path (September 22, 2012). [Photograph]. Microsoft. November 25, 2012. [Woman in Window]. Retrieved from: Microsoft word: Clip Art Cost: $50-200 for the actual repair and a sealant which can be upwards of $18 per/sq.ft
Suggestion: Repair the cracks in the sidewalk to give an air of maintenance and care Figure 15. Well maintained sidewalk Meg. November 24, 2012. [Don't step on the cracks!] Retrieved from http://ameringlish.blogspot.ca/2012_02_01_archive.html Figure 5. Streetlight on dowtown Oshawa street [edit] Sheppard, J. (Photographer). (October 22, 2012). Lamp Post [Photograph]. Figure 9. Broken window on building Figure 1. Aerial view of dowtown Oshawa [edit] Oshawa, ON. (15 Nov. 2012). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved from http://uoit.ca/maps/uoit/?camp=d&b=55B Figure 1.1. Aerial view of pathway [edit] Oshawa, ON. (15 Nov. 2012). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved from http://uoit.ca/maps/uoit/?camp=d&b=55B . Territorial reinforcement is enhanced by the use of pavement treatments, landscaping, fences, signage and other features that define and outline the ownership of property (Mandelbit, 2010).

Brick pavers in spaces between public sidewalk and entries help individuals to visually see an change in the area (Mandelbit, 2010). Cost: $ 260 per light.
Suggestion: Replace single lighting with dual street lighting. Figure 16. Street Lighting Gopaul, A.(Photographer). Street Lighting November 20, 2012). [Photograph].
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