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Word formation

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Aida López de la Rosa

on 24 January 2015

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Transcript of Word formation

Suppletion
Word formation in English
Different methods
There are several methods to create new words in morphological terms. In this presentation we wil briefly examine the following:

Derivation and inflection
Compounding
Reduplication
Blending
Clipping
Acronyms
Borrowing
Back formation
Conversion
Suppletion
Inflection and derivation
Using affixes is by far the
most common
way of creating new words.

Affixes are
bound morphemes
, that is, morphemes which depend on the root of the word. They can not appear by themselves. Affixes can be classified according to the
position they occupy in the word and their function.

Consequently we would have:

Position:
preffix
(beginning),
infix
(middle) and
suffix
(end).
Function:
derivation
and
inflection.
Blending is the
combination of parts
of two or more words to create a new one. That is, there are two meanings included in one single word.

Some examples which will clarify it are:
BR
eakfast + l
UNCH
: brunch
MO
torbike + ho
TEL
: motel
HELI
copter + air
PORT
: heliport
Borrowing
Word formation
Word formation
could be defined as the ways in which new words are formed taking as a basis either words or roots.

Why do we need new words?

Because
language
is the tool we have to
communicate
and we live in a world where changes and developments take place daily, so we need words to refer to these novelties and name them.


Inflection and derivation
A
derivational affix
is "one which produces a new lexeme from a base" whereas an
inflectional affix
"produces a new word-form of a lexeme from a base"

Let's examine the word
renames
as an example.

RE-
NAME
-
S
Compounding
Compounding
is a process by which
two words
are put together to
form a new one
. The new word is a unit denoting one thing, not two.

Compounds can be endocentric and exocentric.
Endocentric
compounds are those which express a
sub-class
of the items denoted by one of their elements. I.e: A sea-bird is a type of bird.

Exocentric
compounds are those which do not denote a sub-class but they have a
new meaning
. I.e: An egg-head is neither an egg nor a head.
Reduplication
Reduplication is the
repetition
of every part or some parts of a root to form a new word.

If reduplication takes the whole stem, them it is
similar to compounding
.

Ablaut reduplication
: new words which differ in just one sound or have little change in spelling.

Some examples of reduplication are:

bye-bye
ding dong
fifty-fifty
teenie - weenie

Blending
Clipping
Clipping can be defined as the process by which a word is
shortened
without altering its meaning or the function it has within a utterance. Clipped forms are used in informal contexts.

BINOC
ular
S
: binocs
DELI
catessen: deli
de
TEC
tive: tec
head-
SHRINK
er: shrink
OP
tical
ART:
opart
SCI
ence
FI
ction: sci fi
Acronyms
New words are formed from the
initial letter of the constituent
words of a phrase or sentence.

For example:

NATO
:
N
orth
A
tlantic
T
reaty
O
rganization
UFO
:
U
nidentified
F
lying
O
bject
SALT
:
S
trategic
A
rms
L
imitation
T
alks

Acronyms are divided in two groups: those read as a word and those read as sequences of letters.

*NGO
Borrowing is the process of taking words
from
other
languages.
I.e,
French
loan words are really popular in the lexicon of English.

For instance:

Risk: Italian noun - to risk: English verb
Deja v`ù (F)
Schadenfreude (G)
ballet (F)
Back formation
Creation of new words by the deletion of an affix in an already existing word.

FORMATION X + A = Y
BACK FORMATION Y - A = X

For instance:

Sculptor -->
sculpt
Editor -->
edit
Exhibition -->
exhibit
Conversion
Conversion is an extremely productive way o producing new words in English. It consists in the use of a form which is regarded basically as being of one category as if it were member of a different class form. In other words,
shifting or changing
the original
grammatical class
to another one.

This process is also referred to as
Zero Derivation
or
Functional Shift.
I.e: water (n) - to water (vb)


Aida López de la Rosa

ALopezDeLaRosa1@sheffield.ac.uk
Suppletion is the
complete change
in the form of a
root
. Therefore, suppletion as a process involves
irregular
forms.

some examples:
Good:
well, better, best
Bad:
worse, worst
To
be
: is, are, was, were
References
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/humanidades/azapata/materias/english_4/unit_1_types_of_words_and_word_formation_processes.pdf [ONLINE] (Last accessed 2 December 2013)

http://killmonotony.net/written/wfp.pdf [ONLINE] (Last accessed 2 December 2013)

Bauer, Laurie.,
Introducing Linguistic Morphology
, 2nd edn (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003).

Bauer, Laurie.,
English Word-Formation
, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983)
Discussion
Which of the methods previously mentioned is/are the most productive/s?

Is the formation of new words in your opinion a good method to improve a language and update it according to the standards concerning globalization?




Agenda
1. What is word formation? & Why are new words necessary?

2. Methods

3. Exercise

4. Discussion
Compounding
The vast majority of compounds in England are nouns

Noun + Noun:
hatchback
Verb + Noun:
google - box
Noun + Verb:
birth control
Verb + Verb:
make-believe
Adjective + Noun:
fast-food
Particle + Noun:
afterheat
Adverb + Noun:
now generation
Verb + Particle :
put-on
Phrase Compounds:
son-in-law
Exercise
Which process explain the creation of the following words?
Burguer
Telex
Babysit
to bottle
CD
Creates
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