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Transcript of Word formation
Word formation in English
There are several methods to create new words in morphological terms. In this presentation we wil briefly examine the following:
Derivation and inflection
Inflection and derivation
Using affixes is by far the
way of creating new words.
, that is, morphemes which depend on the root of the word. They can not appear by themselves. Affixes can be classified according to the
position they occupy in the word and their function.
Consequently we would have:
Blending is the
combination of parts
of two or more words to create a new one. That is, there are two meanings included in one single word.
Some examples which will clarify it are:
eakfast + l
torbike + ho
copter + air
could be defined as the ways in which new words are formed taking as a basis either words or roots.
Why do we need new words?
is the tool we have to
and we live in a world where changes and developments take place daily, so we need words to refer to these novelties and name them.
Inflection and derivation
is "one which produces a new lexeme from a base" whereas an
"produces a new word-form of a lexeme from a base"
Let's examine the word
as an example.
is a process by which
are put together to
form a new one
. The new word is a unit denoting one thing, not two.
Compounds can be endocentric and exocentric.
compounds are those which express a
of the items denoted by one of their elements. I.e: A sea-bird is a type of bird.
compounds are those which do not denote a sub-class but they have a
. I.e: An egg-head is neither an egg nor a head.
Reduplication is the
of every part or some parts of a root to form a new word.
If reduplication takes the whole stem, them it is
similar to compounding
: new words which differ in just one sound or have little change in spelling.
Some examples of reduplication are:
teenie - weenie
Clipping can be defined as the process by which a word is
without altering its meaning or the function it has within a utterance. Clipped forms are used in informal contexts.
ction: sci fi
New words are formed from the
initial letter of the constituent
words of a phrase or sentence.
Acronyms are divided in two groups: those read as a word and those read as sequences of letters.
Borrowing is the process of taking words
loan words are really popular in the lexicon of English.
Risk: Italian noun - to risk: English verb
Deja v`ù (F)
Creation of new words by the deletion of an affix in an already existing word.
FORMATION X + A = Y
BACK FORMATION Y - A = X
Conversion is an extremely productive way o producing new words in English. It consists in the use of a form which is regarded basically as being of one category as if it were member of a different class form. In other words,
shifting or changing
to another one.
This process is also referred to as
I.e: water (n) - to water (vb)
Aida López de la Rosa
Suppletion is the
in the form of a
. Therefore, suppletion as a process involves
well, better, best
: is, are, was, were
http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/humanidades/azapata/materias/english_4/unit_1_types_of_words_and_word_formation_processes.pdf [ONLINE] (Last accessed 2 December 2013)
http://killmonotony.net/written/wfp.pdf [ONLINE] (Last accessed 2 December 2013)
Introducing Linguistic Morphology
, 2nd edn (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003).
, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983)
Which of the methods previously mentioned is/are the most productive/s?
Is the formation of new words in your opinion a good method to improve a language and update it according to the standards concerning globalization?
1. What is word formation? & Why are new words necessary?
The vast majority of compounds in England are nouns
Noun + Noun:
Verb + Noun:
google - box
Noun + Verb:
Verb + Verb:
Adjective + Noun:
Particle + Noun:
Adverb + Noun:
Verb + Particle :
Which process explain the creation of the following words?