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101 AP Language Terms

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Larkin Project

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of 101 AP Language Terms

101 AP Language Terms
Literary Devices
alliteration, repetition, assonance, ambiguity, extended metaphor, imagery, irony, mood, onomatopoeia, parody, allusion, allegory, symbol, paradox, aphorism, euphemism, transition
Poetic Devices
alliteration, repetition, onomatopoeia, extended metaphor, symbol, imagery, mood, assonance, apostrophe, parody, ambiguity
Writing Techniques
irony, euphemism, paradox, aphorism
ad hominem, appeal to authority, appeal to ignorance, comparison, concession, confirmation, deduction, induction, ethos, fallacy, false dilemma, hasty generalization, pathos, rhetoric, rhetorical question, syllogism, comparison
noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction

Parts of speech are the parts that make up a sentence, used in all writing. Most people know all of the terms listed in this subcategory, making them some of the most common terms on this list. These terms are always used in writing and are the fundamentals to successful writing. While this category is a subcategory of a subcategory, it is still very important because it is the foundation and a necessity of all writing.

The part of speech (or world class) that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Example 1: "the truth of nature,
the power of giving interest" (Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Biographia Literaria)
Example 2: The boy was riding his bike along the beach,
a seagull came down and took a leftover sandwich on the ground.

ad hominem, appeal to authority, analogy, antithesis, argument, circular argument, claim, concession, induction, refutation, syllogism, thesis, comparison
Figures of Speech
anaphora, asyndeton, assonance, alliteration, coordination, denotation, connotation, epiphora, figurative language, figures of speech, hyperbole, litotes,
, metonymy, oxymoron, personification, synecdoche, understatement, zeugma, chiasmus
Components of a Story
character, climax, exposition, flashback, genre, narrative, point of view, mode of discourse, transition
complement, predicate, clause, subject, antecedent

Grammar is used in all writing and is a basic guiding tool for successful writing. Grammar corresponds with the technical part of writing, in terms of how words make sense together. Grammar gives structure to sentences. We made this a big category because it is extremely important and necessary in styles and genres of writing.
: A group of words that contains a subject and a predicate.
Example 1: "When the saints go marching in" (Louis Armstrong,
When the Saints Go Marching In
Examples 2: since she laughed at him
fallacy, ad hominem, appeal to authority, appeal to ignorance, false dilemma, hasty generalization
Parts of Speech
syntax, periodic sentence, loose sentence, antithesis, chiasmus, parallelism, isocolon, asyndeton, subordination, running style
Syntax is the way in which words or phrases are organized. Syntax can be used in many different forms. It can be used by writers to emphasize a certain phrase or word in a sentence that changes to understanding of the sentence by the reader. All of the words in this category apply to the organization of sentences, words, or paragraphs. This category is a subcategory for grammar because all of these words also apply to the grammar of the sentence because of the type of organization.
Periodic Sentence:
A long and frequently involved sentence, marked by suspended syntax, in which the sense is not completed until the final word--usually with an emphatic climax.
Example 1: "Out of the bosom of the Air,Out of the cloud-folds of her garment shaken,Over the woodlands brown and bare,Over the harvest-fields forsaken,Silent and soft, and slow,Descends the snow." (Longfellow, Snowflakes)
Example 2: Blowing in the wind, visited by friendly bees, getting hit by the morning dew, the blossom bloomed.
style, tone, voice, chiasmus, dialect, didactic, diction, colloquial, sarcasm, satire, invective, jargon, running style, epiphora, zeugma

This category is very simple, without any subcategories. However, it is somewhat large because of its frequent use. Most writers use the techniques above to express themselves through their writing. There are many different ways, as seen above with the variety of terms and options, in which a writer can show his or her style in a piece of writing.
The use of a word to modify or govern two or more words although its use may be grammatically or logically correct with only one.
Example 1:"[They] covered themselves with dust and glory." (Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer)
Example 2: The boy left with his dignity and his wallet.
Language of Praise
epitaph, eulogy, encomium
Referring to Deceased
epitaph, eulogy
anaphora, epiphora, chiasmus, alliteration, assonance, asyndeton
coordination, subordination, denotation, connotation, metaphor, synecdoche,
, zeugma, litotes, onomatopoeia, oxymoron,
This subordinate category to literary devices represents the 101 AP term's poetical devices. Every term is a literary device, but this category specifically includes poetic devices, which separate the listed terms from the other categories. This category is also subordinate to writing techniques, for every poetic device is a writing technique. A key characteristic that classifies the listed terms as poetic devices is that they are only used in poems rather than stories or novels.
: Vivid descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the senses.
Let us go then, you and I,
When the evening is spread out against the sky
Like a patient etherised upon a table;
Let us go through certain half-deserted streets
The muttering retreats
Of restless night in one night cheap hotels
And saw dust restaurants with oyster shells -The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by TJ Elliot
The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. A statement or situation where the meaning is directly contradicted by the appearance of presentation of the idea
The words in this subcategory, writing techniques, are very specific strategies authors employ while writing, specifically while writing novels. Although the definitions of these words are quite different from each other, they are all related in that they are elements of a piece of literature that have a distinctive purpose. For example, if an author decides to embed a euphemism into his work, he is not doing this randomly; he does so thoughtfully, so as to enhance his piece. These writing techniques that authors often utilize help create a better literary work, often provoking the reader to think beyond the surface meaning of the words on the page.
This large, general category of literary devices contains writing tools that authors can use in all forms of literature. All of these devices are used to catch the reader's attention in some way. Imagery, for instance, is commonly found in writing to inform the reader of the setting, which often appeals to the senses and may cause the reader to feel a certain way, such as cheery, dreary, or nervous. Literary devices are vital for a successful piece of literature.
A statement that appears to contradict itself.
A tribute or eulogy in prose or verse glorifying people, objects, ideas, or events.
Although a very small category, these three words are very closely related. They are all words of praise for somebody, often who has died. However, encomium differs from epitaph and eulogy in that it can be a tribute to somebody who is still alive. Nonetheless, these three terms are all positive works in honor of another person.
1) A short inscription in prose or verse on a tombstone or monument. 2) A statement or speech commemorating someone who has died: a funeral oration.
As is self-explanatory by the category, epitaph and eulogy are both tributes to one who has passed. They are both very positive, so as to honor and remember the person's life. The difference between these two terms, though, is that an epitaph is typically shorter and written on a tombstone, while a eulogy is usually a speech commemorating the person who has recently died. These words referring to the deceased are utilized by most, if not all, people at some point in their lives.
Figures of speech are important tools in writing that allow a writer to express a desired rhetorical effect. Each one of these terms allows the author to use language in a non-literal way in order to develop his or her own piece. The figures of speech have many variations and are often used to provide clarity and a sense of originality to the reader. However, these figures of speech can be divided into two subcategories that refer to the meaning versus the arrangement.

Tropes are a type of figure of speech. This subcategory encompasses a substantial amount of the given list of figures of speech, as they are used by writers to use language in a non-literal way by emphasizing meaning. Tropes tend to bring focus upon the actual meaning of a word instead of its arrangement which gives it a rhetorical effect.
Schemes are also a subcategory of the figures of speech. Schemes are similar to tropes in their usage, but are different in how they act in the text. Schemes refer to more of the arrangement and placement of words rather than their exact meaning. They too, are used to establish a desired rhetorical effect. This grouping includes words that are used in a non-literal way, but reflects how ordering and arrangement seen in these words achieves rhetorical meaning.
Ex 1: "An empty stream, a great silence, an impenetrable forest. The air was thick, warm, heavy, sluggish."
The Heart of Darkness
-Joseph Conrad

The terms all contribute to the makings of a story. Writers keep each of these components in mind while in the process of creating a story. Although many of these terms are present in the natural telling of a story, each is important to helping the reader understand the development of an effective piece of writing. As the components of a story, it becomes apparent that this category must include many of these other literary terms in order to accomplish these things, but the words listed above are the most basic components.
a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between the two unlike things that actually have something important in common
Ex 1: "Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage and then is heard no more. It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing."
Act V Scene V
Example 2: The AP biology test was the moon of a solar eclipse, blocking out any possible warmth or sunshine.

a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely related to
Ex 1:
“As he swung toward them holding up the hand
Half in appeal, but half as if to keep
from spilling”
"Out, Out" -Robert Frost
Ex 2:
A flower appeared in the deadness of failed plan.

the omission of conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses
Ex 2: A wicked comb, faucet on high, a heaping pile of hair. The salon was stuffy, humid, horrid, moist.
mounting by degrees through words or sentences of increasing weight and in parallel construction with an emphasis on the high point or culmination of a series of events
Ex 1: "And from the crew of Apollo 8, we close with good night, good luck, a merry Christmas, and God bless all of you, all of you on the good earth."
-- Frank Borman, Astronaut
Ex 2: You will be completing an activity today, with a set amount of time. This will be a rhetorical essay, ten pages minimum and worth fifty percent of your final grade.
The argument category contains strategies that strengthen one's thesis or claim. In addition to backing up one's argument, some of the strategies also revoke an opposing point. This category is its own because it includes terms that both defend on'es own point and attack another's claim. Persuasion and fallacies fall under this category because both persuasive terms and fallacies are argumentative strategies.
A course of reasoning aimed at or demonstrating truth or falsehood.
The debate over the death penalty- CNN
The persuasive category contains strategies that particularly strengthen your claim. These terms help defend your argument by making it seem more believable and true. In contrast to the other argumentative terms, persuasive strategies do not intend to oppose other views. This category is subordinate to argumentative because every listed strategy only defends your argument.
: A persuasive appeal based on the projected character of the speaker or narrator.
The dominance of Lebron James makes any athletic advice of his credible and trustworthy.
Mr. Larkin is the best teacher at BHS
Huck Finn's shady character defeats his credibility and makes him unreliable

The frost wind bit my skin
I was reduced to ash and tin
The chemical amidst made me sick
For the vapors were too thick

The girl posted a Facebook status about how Facebook is useless and a waste of time.
The swiftest traveler is he that goes afoot."
(Henry David Thoreau,
"I grew up in the South, and Rosa Parks was a hero to me long before I recognized and understood the power and impact that her life embodied. I remember my father telling me about this colored woman who had refused to give up her seat. And in my child's mind, I thought, 'She must be really big.' I thought she must be at least a hundred feet tall. I imagined her being stalwart and strong and carrying a shield to hold back the white folks. And then I grew up and had the esteemed honor of meeting her. And wasn't that a surprise. Here was this petite, almost delicate lady who was the personification of grace and goodness. And I thanked her then. I said, 'Thank you,' for myself and for every colored girl, every colored boy, who didn't have heroes who were celebrated. I thanked her then." (Oprah Winfrey)
I had never had as great of an English teacher as Mr. Larkin. He is extremely intelligent and pushes all of his students to succeed. His extreme enthusiasm in class rubs off on his students, causing them to strive for perfection. Not only is he an excellent teacher, but he is also a very kind person. Mr. Larkin really seems to just have it all. After all, it is not often that you come across a smart, caring, and lively person who can instantly brighten your day.
"Here lies a great and mighty king
Whose promise none relies on;
He never said a foolish thing
Nor ever did a wise one."
(John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, on King Charles II)

Gone, but not forgotten
Forever and always in our hearts
The fallacies are specific argumentative techniques used to convince an audience of something. For instance, the 'appeal to authority' fallacy' is used to convince an audience of the greatness of something by showing it that a famous, or well-respected person supports that cause or thing. Fallacies often give off the impression that the majority supports the issue, therefore you should as well. They are often effective because most people want to fit in with the crowd and do not want to stick out as being weird or an outcast.
Appeal to Authority:
A fallacy in which a speaker or writer seeks to persuade not by giving evidence but by appealing to the respect people have for a famous person or institution.
(Adam Levine, Proactiv Commercial)
A child asks his mom why he has to be the one to wash the dishes, and his mom replies with, "Because I said so."
Time stood still.
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