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Chapter 1 Section 2-Societies of North America

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Thomas Polkki

on 22 January 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 1 Section 2-Societies of North America

Chapter 1 Section 2-
Societies of North America
By 1500, Native Americans had divided into hundreds of groups, using thousands of languages, adapting to their different environments
Technology is the use of tools and knowledge to meet human needs
Some tribes were farmers, some hunters, some used tools, some irrigation, it is all about adapting to your environment
The Aleut and Inuit lived far north up toward modern day Alaska
Tundra-a treeless plain that remains frozen under its top layer of soil-Home of the Inuit
The Inuit and Aleut lived in areas were farming was impossible, so they hunted, one way was through paddling Kayaks-small boats made of animal skins
The Southeast, which stretches from east Texas to the Atlantic Ocean, had mild winters and warm summers with much rain
This area housed tribes such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw, who were primarily farmers
The tribes of the Southeast traced family lines around women and treated them more respectfully then others, Societies in which ancestry is traced through the mother are called matrilineal
They hunted whales, seals, and walrus, while honoring the spirits of the animals
Northwest Coast groups such as the Kwakiutl and Haida had a ceremony called the potlatch, in which individuals would give away most or all of their goods as a way to claim status and benefit their community
Western tribes who lived amongst desert, had to rely on hunting for survival, hunting deer, elk, antelope, and fishing for salmon
The women of these tribes became expert weavers and had strong spiritual beliefs
The rulers of Mexico were the Aztec tribe, whose origins are unknown
In 1325, they built their capital city, Tenochtitlan, on modern day Mexico City
The Aztec ruled Mexico for 2 reasons

1. They drained swamps and built an irrigation system, which allowed them to grow plenty of food to grow an empire

2. They were warriors who conquered those around, something they would pay for later on down the line
The Aztecs were a class society, with the rulers on top, priests and government workers next, slaves and servants at the bottom
The Aztecs held elaborate religious ceremonies linked to their calender and their study of the sun, moon, and stars, and included human sacrifice
The American Southwest was home to the Pueblo, ancestors of the Hohokam and Anasazi, they were a farming society
The Navajo and Apache were hunters and gatherers who came to the region after the Pueblo
The Northeast region had plenty of fish, game, and rain but cold climate
The region had many forests, earning the name Eastern Woodlands, with most people speaking either an Iroquoian or Algonquian language
The Iroquois hunted wild game but they also adapted to their forest environment for farming by using slash-and-burn agriculture-when farmers chop down and then burn trees on a plot of land
The ashes from the fire enriched the soil
The Algonquin and Iroquois both surrounded their villages with high fences made of poles, often to protect each other from themselves as Iroquois would often attack each others villages
In the late 1500's, 5 northern Iroquois nations took the advice of a peace keeping man named Deganawida
They formed an alliance

These tribes-Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca formed the Iroquois League
They had a council of leaders from each nation that followed rules called the Great Law of Peace
Homework Assignment

Chapter 1 Section 2 Assessment P. 37 #3 and 4, due Tomorrow

A Native American named Deganawida attempted to change this and promote peace
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