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ROBOTICS

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by

Rishabh Jangir

on 15 September 2014

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Transcript of ROBOTICS

Basic Classification
ROBOTICS
According to you which of these tasks can a Robot do?
Wake you up at 5am for the PT class?
YESS!!
Shuffle your music player according to your mood?
YESS!!
Clean your filthy hostel room?
YESS!!
Do your ED assignments on its own?
Probably not yet!
A Robot mainly has two
important parts
The Brain.
The Body
Can take Decisions?
Autonomous
Manual
Processes involved?
Sensing the line.
Processing the information
Controlling the Motors
Remembering the path
Processes Involved?
Controlling the Motors by the user.
Nothing else!
No programming required.
Very few or no sensors required.
No Brain on the BOT.
Whole processing is done by the person controlling the robot
The bot is completely independent.
Whole processing is done by the processors mounted on the robot.
Previously -programmed to complete its tasks.
Involves sensors and complex circuitry.
We will look in detail about the brain part in future lectures.
We have to have the mechanical and electrical part fixed before we can even think of programming.
To build any bot, u need components motors, batteries, sensors, controllers, switches,etc.
these are important but do not worry about them too much, lets have a fast walk through all these different components.

MOTORS
Motors are responsible for almost all sorts of
movements taking place in the Robots.
We decide whether to use a certain motor for a certain job based on these specifications:
1) RPM
2) Torque
3) Weight
There are more terms on this list but on the beginner’s level, this much is fair enough.

These are the simplest type of all the motors.
Two pins for power supply.
Reversed direction of rotation with reversed polarity.
Mostly used for locomotion of the bot.
Gearbox assembly is required to decrease the rpm and increase the torque.

DC Motors
Servo Motors
Servo refers to an error sensing feedback control which is used to correct the performance of a system.
Servo Motors are DC motors equipped with a servo mechanism for precise control of angular position.
The RC servo motors usually have a rotation limit from 180° to 360°.
The Servos are used for precision positioning.

Applications
Stepper Motors
A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brush less DC electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps.
They turn into integral number of steps.
Stepper motors are used in floppy disk drives, computer printers, plotters, slot machines, image scanners, compact disc drives etc.

Applications
3D printers
X-Y Tables
Robotic Arm
360 degree servo
Improve The Mess food?
Are you Kidding me?
Gear-less
DC Motor

Toy Motor
Shifted shaft geared
DC motor
Stepper Motor
Brush-less DC motor
Brush-less DC motors (BLDC motors, BL motors) also known as electronically commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors) are electric motors powered by direct-current (DC) electricity and having electronic commutation systems, rather than mechanical commutators and brushes.
More efficient
Less noise
More power per unit weight.
High Price

Laptop Fans
Quadcopters
Applications
Principle of Gears
Suppose gear ‘A’ has 10 teeth and gear ‘B’ has 30 teeth.
Its obvious that linear velocity at the point of contact is same for both the gears.
Simple calculation gives:
rpm of ‘A’ = 3 X rpm of ‘B’
torque of ‘B’ = 3 X torque of ‘A’

B
A
Two meshing gears transmitting
rotational motion. Note that the
smaller gear is rotating faster.
Although the larger gear is
rotating less quickly, its torque
is proportionally greater.
One subtlety of this particular
arrangement is that the linear
speed at the rim is the same on
both gears.

Batteries
The batteries provide power required to run the motors and other components on the robots.
The type of battery required is decided based upon:
1) Current required
2) Weight constraints
3) Total energy required in one run of the bot

Lithium-Polymer (Li-Po)
The Li – ions required for working for this cell is stored in a polymer matrix instead of a solvent.
They don’t need a metal casing.
Relatively lighter.
Used in flying robots like quad rotors.
Chargeable through 220V AC supply
High Price


Lead-Acid Batteries
Li-Po Charger
very low energy-to-weight ratio
Low energy to volume ratio
Relatively cheap
Rechargeable.

Switches
Push-Button
Used to turn on a circuit momentarily.
Pressed state – ON
Released state – OFF

DPDT Switch
Generally used to operate a motor.
State 1 – Motor turns clockwise.
State 2 – Motor turns anti-clockwise.

Working
Bump Switch/ Bump Sensor
Sensors
A robo gets to know about the surroundings through sensors, same as what we use our sense organs for.
Ping Sensor
Uses ultrasonic sound waves to measure distance
Proximity sensor
A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact.


Infrared Sensors
These sensors radiate in infrared region and then calculate the amount of reflected radiation
IR sensor Array
TSOP
Receiver
Emitters
Miscellaneous
Temperature Sensor
Gives voltage output proportional to the temperature in degree centigrade
Moisture sensor
Humidity sensor
Leap motion sensor
Advanced Sensors
Kinect
Important IC's
Motor Driver (eg.L293D)
It’s a device or circuit that is essentially current amplifier; the function of which is to take a low-current control signal, and turn it into a proportionally higher-current power source that can drive a motor.

Voltage Regulators
Used to step down voltages
Micro-controllers
The processing units a.k.a. BRAIN
Mechanisms Involved
Differential Drive
Differential drive is a method of controlling a
vehicle’s motion by bringing a difference in the speeds of its wheels.

Locomotion
Biped
Hexapod
Wheeled bot
Tracked Robot
Gripping mechanisms
Rack and Pinion for x-y table
Now think of the following mechanisms:
Ball Throwing Mechanism
Pole climbing Mechanism
Ball Fetching Mechanism
Full transcript