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Copy of History Mind Map

By: Sumeet Pabla
by

soom .

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Copy of History Mind Map

By: Sumeet Pabla
World War 1
World War 2
Cold War/Modern
Conflicts

Immigration
First Nations and
Residential Schools

Holocaust
Rwanda
Japanese
Internment

Civil Rights and
Black Canadians

The Depression
Prohibition
Tommy Douglas and
Pierre Trudeau
Women
Canada's Growing
Autonomy

Baby Boom
Canada U.S
Relations

French-
English Relations

The Spark
Of War

The Schlieffen
Plan

Trench
Warfare

Weapons
Battles
Canada and the
Home front

End Of
World War 1

Rise of Hitler
Germany on
the Move

European Battles
War in
the Pacific

End of War
Cold War
Korean and
Vietnam War

United Nations
Suez Crisis
Canadian Immigration
Policies

Residential
Schools

Douglas and
Health Care

Trudeau
The Black Hand (Gavrilo Princip) of Serbia assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia
Serbia wants Bosnia to be free from Austria Hungary Empire and to be a part of Serbia
Austria Hungary sends Serbia an ultimatum including three conditions; they refuse one of them which was to let Austria Hungary occupy Serbia
Austria Hungary declares war and Serbia has joined with Russia meaning Russia has joined the battle
Germany writes Austria Hungary a “blank cheque” offering them help
Idea to take France out quickly
Send a Northern army through Belgium and a Southern army through Southern France
Schlieffen dies and Moltke doesn’t execute plan properly
Russia mobilizes quickly
Germany went through Belgium which causes Britain to enter the war
Plan failed
Trench Foot
No Man's Land
Barbed Wire
Tanks
Rations
Over The Top
Machine Guns
Poisonous Gas
Rifles and Bayonets
Artillery and Trench Mortars
Submarines, Air planes, Battleships, and Zeppelins
Ypres
(Spring 1915)
Entente on the defensive
First time gas was used
First time Canadians fight in the war and Flanders Fields is written about Ypres
Canadians gain a reputation of being brave and a force to be reckoned with
•Somme
(July 1, 1916)
Entente on the offensive
Lasts for three months and 12 kilometers gained
Tanks are used for the first time but were a failure due to the mud
British General Douglas Haig commands the army
Over 1 million casualties including 24,000 Canadians
Vimy Ridge (April, 1917 )
Entente on the offensive and all four Canadian divisions fight together on the same battlefield
Canadian army is commanded by Arthur Currie and Currie did extensive preparations for the attack
The Canadians used the Creeping Barrage technique and were very successful
Muddy, huge craters and it rained all the time which caused people and horses to drown
Passchendaele (1917)
Canadians were led by General Arthur Currie, but he said an offense would be too difficult, but was told to continue leading them to a high casualty victory
Conscription
Halifax
Explosion
Men were forced to register for war because volunteer numbers started to decrease
In order to get support for the Military Service Act PM Robert Borden offered women who had a family member serving in the war the right to vote
At first there are exceptions: farmers, widows, disabilities, people with important jobs, but these are taken away
The two ships that collided in the Halifax harbor were the Imo and Mont Blanc
The Mont Blanc was carrying explosives and the Imo was a Belgium relief ship
When the two collided, it made the biggest man made explosion up until the dropping of the atomic bombs in Japan
Treaty of Versailles
World War 1 ended in November 11, 1918
The Treaty included: France (Clamenceau), Britain (David Lloyd George), and United States (Woodrow Wilson)
Canada has their own seat (sign of independence)
Germany was not consulted and conditions included: paying for the entire war ($6.6 billion), War Guilt Clause, lost part of their land, decrease the size of their army and demilitarize the Rhineland
Between March and November of 1924, Hitler writes Mein Kamph (my struggle) after being arrested because of the "Beer Hall Putsch" incident
October 1929 the stock market crashes, making things worse in Germany and the citizens are getting desperate for a new leader
On January 30, 1933 Hitler becomes chancellor and between June 30 and July 1, 1934 Hitler executes his rivals and enemies, "Night of Long Knives"
August 2, 1934 president Hindenburg dies and Hitler becomes DER FUHRER (The Leader)
Appeasement
Politicians in England, France, U.S, and Canada thought an appeasement would prevent another war and prevent Hitler from taking over counties like Czechoslovakia, but they were wrong
The appeasement only encouraged Hitler's aggressive acts because he knew the allied countries would not attempt to stop him
Germany eventually joined with Austria-Hungry to gain soldiers, gold, weapons and ore to produce munitions for his armed forces
The appeasement was one of the main reasons why World War 2 occurred, allowing Hitler to gain an advantage against the allied forces
Battle of Britain (Operation Sea Lion) July 10, 1940
Hitler’s goal was to land troops in South England so that the panzer (tank) could do its job, but had to battle against the British Royal Air Force
German aircraft swarmed the British skies destroying British airfields and supply factories
They also bombed London and big British cities to attack civilians and their morale but luckily, the RAF Spitfires stopped the bombers and Hitler failed
Invasion of Russia (Operation Barbarossa) June 22, 1941
Hitler attacked Russia with 4 million men spread out along a 2,000-mile front in three massive offensives, violating the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression pact
Germany faced heavy causalities due to the freezing winters and fought against the determined 5.5 million Soviet soldiers
Hitler ended up losing the battle by the Soviet army
The victory also allowed Canada to transform from colony to country
Dieppe Raid (Operation Jubilee) summer of 1942
Battle of Ortona (Italy) December 20 – 28, 1943
D-Day (Operation Overlord) June 6, 1944
Soviets were urging the Allies to attack Nazi-occupied Europe from the West, but the allies were not ready to launch an all-out attack but wanted to test German defenses
Operation was a failure from the outset after six hours, but luckily valuable lessons were learned from the failed Dieppe raid
Biggest test for Canadian troops in Italy and the Canadians were able to drive the Germans out of the city
Techniques developed and used by Canadians became the model for urban warfare for the duration of WWII
Allies were ready to launch their long-awaited invasion to take back “Fortress Europe” and planning took over a year, with lessons from Dieppe considered
Phase 1 – Air: Bombing and Parachuting, Phase 2 – Naval: Clearing and Delivering, Phase 3 – Land Forces: Assaulting and Securing
The 81-kilometer stretch of beach was divided into 5 points using the following code names- United States: Utah and Omaha, Britain: Gold and Sword, Canada: Juno
D-Day was a success and Canadians had penetrated farther inland than any other Allied forces making it a victorious battle
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
Without warning, Japanese launched an attack on the U.S Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii using 366 bombing aircraft
Attack lasted for 2 hours and killed 2,403 Americans and sank or severely damaged 14 warships and 347 aircraft
The United States joined the Allies and declares war on Japan
Battle of Hong Kong
Japan wanted to control the entire Pacific and a few hours after Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded Hong Kong
A small British Commonwealth defense force was defending Hong Kong and approximately 2000 Canadian soldiers were there, but the soldiers were very poorly trained
Unfortunately, on December 25, 1941 Hong Kong surrendered to Japan
The Atomic
Bomb
Two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan
The first bomb was called "Little Boy" dropping from the plane "Enola Gay" onto Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 killing 70,000 people instantly
The second bomb was named "Fat Man" dropping onto Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 and the bomb killed 40,000 people instantly
Japan surrendered unconditionally on August 10, 1945 aboard the U.S battleship Missouri and the war is over
On March 1945, the Allies cross Rhine River and enter Germany and Hitler launches one last effort to defend his empire after the Allies capture Normandy
Hitler refused to admit defeat and on April 30, Hitler and his wife committed suicide in their underground bunker
Germany surrenders to the Allies on May 7th 1945, and May 8th is declared as “Victory in Europe Day”
Tensions began to rise at the end of World War 2 when Germany was split in the Potsdam conference
A main event during the Cold War includes the Arms Race when nuclear weapons were being developed and stockpiled
Another main event during the Cold War includes the Space Race when USSR and US wanted to get the first person to space which was achieved by the USSR but, the US landed on the moon first
The Berlin wall was created to prevent communists from escaping to the American sector with democracy on one side (West) and communism on the other (East)
The Policy of Containment was created to stop communism from spreading but, resulted to the Korean War and Vietnam War
Korean War
North Korea was originally supported by USSR and South by America
When the USSR pulled out of North Korea, the North tried to unify the country by invading South Korea
The UN sent over troops including Canadians
They end up unifying with each other resulting in North and South Korea
The war is known as the forgotten war
Vietnam War
North Vietnam were communists and the South democratic
Canadians did not officially fight in the war but instead supported America
The Peace Agreement was signed at the end of the war and the promise made was that North would not invade the South, but the agreement was eventually broken
UN officially comes into existence on October 24, 1945, and their main objectives are to: promote international cooperation, maintain peace and security throughout the world, and develop friendly relations amongst nations
The Security Council has five permanent members including US, UK, France, Russia, China and if the Security Council decides there is a threat to international peace, it normally begins by calling for negotiations to resolve the problem
The Suez Canal is a series of waterways dug through part of Egypt to link the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea creating a much shorter naval route from Asia to Europe for goods
After Egypt gained independence, The Suez Crisis erupts on July 26, 1956 when Egyptian President Abdul Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal Company – which had been run by the French with the British government as the largest single shareholder
This allowed France and Britain to express their grave concern for peace and then land their own troops as “peacekeepers” to separate the Israeli and Egyptian armies
Lester B. Pearson solved the crisis by getting all sides to agree to the creation of a neutral United Nations force to maintain peace in the region and Pearson’s new peacekeeping force would continue to keep the peace in future decades in many parts of the world
In the late 1800s, the expansion of settlements in Canada’s West was needed for several reasons: connect British Columbia with the rest of Canada and prevent the U.S from annexing the prairies
The Immigration Act of 1978 remedied the fact that the 1967 Act still favored white immigrants
In 1908 Canada passed the Continuous Passage Act which stated that Indians would have to come to Canada via direct passage from India
Komagata Maru Incident in 1914 was when an Indian ship landed on BC shore, and Canadian government did not want to let them in, resulting to them waiting for 2 months in a legal battle, and only 24 were accepted out of 400
Black immigrants were “unsuitable to the climate and requirements of Canada” in attempts to keep Canada white and between 1901-1911 fewer than 1500 African Americans came
The term residential schools refers to an extensive school system set up by the Canadian government and administered by churches that had the nominal objective of educating Aboriginal children but also the more damaging and equally explicit objectives of indoctrinating them into Euro-Canadian and Christian ways of living
Two primary objectives of the residential school system were to remove and isolate children from the influences of their homes, families, traditions and cultures, and to assimilate them into the dominant culture
It was forced that students started school at the age of six, leaving their families for ten months also including living in conditions that were unreasonable, forcing them to cut their hair short, wear uniforms, change their name, and have a strict timetable as well as not being allowed to speak their own language, practice cultural activities, or speak to other family members
In addition, students did not acquire the same education as public schools, along with unhealthy living conditions, stricter corporal punishment, and increased amount of physical and sexual abuse resulting to their adulthood being effected dramatically, causing many long-term impacts
The Holocaust was the mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a program of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout German occupied territory
The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages including various laws to remove the Jews from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws, were enacted in Germany years before the outbreak of World War II
Concentration camps were established in which inmates were subjected to slave labor until they died of exhaustion or disease
In 1994, Rwanda’s population of seven million was composed of three ethnic groups: Hutu (approximately 85%), Tutsi (14%) and Twa (1%) and in the early 1990s, Hutu extremists within Rwanda’s political elite blamed the entire Tutsi minority population for the country’s increasing social, economic, and political pressures
On April 6, 1994, a plane carrying President Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down and violence began almost immediately and Hutu extremists launched their plans to destroy the entire Tutsi civilian population
In the weeks after April 6, 1994, 800,000 men, women, and children perished in the Rwandan genocide, as many as three quarters of the Tutsi population
In 1993, General Romeo Dallaire was given the position of Force Commander of the UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda)
Dallaire was threatened a number of times, but he refused to stand down and troops were withdrawn but Dallaire asked for more, the UN did not give enough support or listen to Dalliare’s concerns
In 1996, Dallaire was given the Officer of the Legion of Merit of the United States Award, the highest military rank that can be given to foreigners for his bravery in Rwanda
After the event of Pearl Harbor, people in British Columbia wanted to feel safe from the Japanese and due to the fact that the Japanese could not assimilate, they had to face xenophobia, racism, and discrimination
This caused riots such as the “Little Tokyo” riot in Vancouver, when 5000 Canadians destroyed homes and looted stores of Japanese Canadian citizens and in 1928, a man named Mackenzie created the “Gentleman’s Agreement” which limited the amount of Japanese immigrants migrating into Canada to be a mere 150 people
On February 24, 1942 Prime Minister King announced that all Japanese were to be relocated and either to be deported back to Japan, or to be moved to internment camps located East in the Rocky Mountains and in only 9 months, more than 22,000 Japanese lost their homes and moved across British Columbia
The Japanese internment camps were dreadful to live in with limited privacy and ventilation inside camps, and unpleasant food causing outbreaks of diarrhea
Blacks owned inadequate homes, inadequate service at restaurants, land grants, hotels and hospitals and in February of 1911, an Anti-Black Campaign was created allowing the government to become more "restrictive, exclusive and selective."
Viola Davis Desmond sat in the expensive floor of a theater, when she paid for balcony seat, and she was charged with tax evasion leading to her being arrested and locked up in jail without being told her rights or given a lawyer
When Africville was relocated, the residents were not notified of their eviction and were transported in dump trucks, leading to homes being destroyed and burned down, financial problems, high cost of living, unemployment, and the result in loss of family and cultural relationships
Affricville was a place were former slaves from British and American owners lived, located in Halifax and the living conditions were horrible and many faced racial abuse
Union Nationale 1944 – 1959: A Quebec party led by Maurice Duplessis had tight control over Quebec society which had very strong loyalty to French-Canadian traditions and values and Quebec government strongly resisted efforts by the federal government to force change
The Quiet Revolution-Lesage took control of the hydroelectric companies giving the citizens of Quebec more control over their economic future which increased tensions between French and English speaking people in Quebec
FLQ (Front de Liberation du Quebec)- formed in 1963 which is a radical group of separatists with no specific leader, and planned to use terrorism as a weapon for independence
January 6th, 1945: Canada-United States Automotive Agreement signed (known as the Auto Pact) which set an example for broader free trade between Canada and United States
Auto Pact enabled Canada to develop an internationally competitive auto industry which created a single North American manufacturing market and eliminated trade tariffs between the two countries
1970s report: high degree of Canadian economy owned by foreign investors, profits flow out of Canada to the U.S and key decisions about expanding/closing plant outside of Canada
During the 1920’s, Canada took some important steps towards full autonomy (control over its affairs) from Britain
In 1923 Canada & U.S. sign treaty over Halibut fishing but Britain had always signed on behalf of Canada and in 1926 the Balfour Report is created and Canada no longer a “Dominion of the British Empire” where Canada should be self-governing and independent and creates the Commonwealth of Nations
Canada no longer has to talk to Britain through the Governor General and PM Mackenzie King’s in control, in 1927 Canada opens its own embassy in the U.S
The Statute of Westminster was in 1931 which made the recommendations of Balfour Report law, Canada bound by no other laws than its own, and Canada is completely self-governing
After World War 2, families were reunited, the economy was booming, and the birth rate in Canada increased to 25.3 births to 1000 people
The Baby Boom was officially between 1946 to 1965, the population of Canada increased from 12 million to 18 million, and in the US, 79 million people were born
The consequences included less inheritance money, the need for more jobs, and the increased need for healthcare
Feminist movement: Women's suffrage- the first province to allow women to vote was Ontario, allowed widows, unmarried women who owned a property to vote only
Famous 5- in 1929, they succeeded in having women defined as "persons" in the British North American Act, and the group included: Emily Murphy, Irene Marryat Parlby, Nellie Mooney McClung, Louise Crummy McKinney, and Henrietta Muir Edwards
Pierre Elliott Trudeau, politician, writer, constitutional lawyer, and Prime Minister of Canada
Trudeau was born into a wealthy family, the son of a successful French Canadian businessman and a mother of Scottish ancestry
Educated at the Jesuit Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, Université de Montréal, Harvard and London School of Economics, he also travelled extensively in his youth
Thomas Clement Douglas, "Tommy," Baptist minister, politician, premier of Saskatchewan
Douglas led the first socialist government elected in Canada and is recognized as the father of socialized medicine
He also helped establish democratic socialism in the mainstream of Canadian politics
Prohibition is the ban on the production, import & transportation of alcohol across the country, also alcohol had been a problem for many Canadians in the early part of Canada’s history and many Canadians thought that it should not be allowed to destroy more lives
Smugglers called ‘Bootleggers’ made thousands of dollars bringing in illegal alcohol to America, which was only causing more problems so the government wanted “a piece of the action” & began taxing alcohol instead of banning alcohol creating the LCBO – Liquor Control Board of Ontario
On October 29th, 1929 – called “Black Tuesday” was when the New York Stock Market crashed and the 1930s were years of despair for many Canadians as they lost their savings, jobs, automobiles and homes
What caused it- the nation's productive capacity was greater than its capacity to consume, high import taxes and war-debt policies of the Americans in the 1920s cut down the foreign market for American goods, Canada’s largest trading partner, and easy money policies (cheap loans, etc.) encouraged and made it easier for people to borrow money
Many people turned to new political parties to help solve the economic crisis which contributed to the rise of Adolf Hitler in Europe
Thank You For Reading.
Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone was an American gangster who led Prohibition and he was dedicated to smuggling and bootlegging liquor, and other illegal activities such as prostitution, in Chicago from the early 1920s to 1931
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