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Transcript of Ethnic studies
Latino is the term used to indicate a broad sense of ethnicity among Spanish-speaking people in the US
African American writing often displays a folkloric conception of humankind;
double consciousness, bicultural identity
attack on presumed white cultural superiority
irony, parody, tragedy and bitter comedy
naturalistic focus on survival
inventive reframings of language, like language game
It is written by people of Asian descent in the United States, addressing the experience of living in a society that sometimes views them as alien
Native American Literatures
Native American is a general term to call them.
The best name to use would be the tribal name because American Indian identities are tribal.
How Ethnic Studies Began
The first strike for Ethnic Studies occurred in 1968, it was the longest student strike in the nation's history, and resulted in the establishment of a School of Ethnic Studies in San Francisco University.
1968 strike for ethnic studies
San Francisco University
Debate on Ethnic Studies
Cons: Ethnic Studies is accused of promoting "racial separatism", "linguistic isolation" and "racial preference". In addition, Ethnic Studies is attacked for reinforcing stereotypes and offering simplistic explanations for the very deep fissures among different cultural groups in this country.
May 11, 2010, Jan Brewer signed HB 2281 into law. That law bans schools from teaching classes that are designed for students of a particular ethnic group or that promote resentment, ethnic solidarity, or overthrow of the U.S. government. "Public school pupils should be taught to treat and value each other as individuals and not be taught to resent or hate other races or classes of people," it reads.
How to understand Ethnic Studies
Ethnic Studies generally is concerned with art and literature produced by ethnic groups marginalized or in a subordinate position to a dominant culture (310)
Ethnic Studies is an interdisciplinary enterprise that starts from the assumption that race and racism have been, and continue to be, profoundly powerful social and cultural forces in American society and in modernity at large
By UC Berkeley Department of Ethnic Studies
By Meng Wang
Students and teachers from the Raza Studies program protest to protect ethnic studies programs in Arizona’s public schools
W.E.B. Du Bois
February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963
Sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor
"It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his two-ness, an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder". ---Du Bois
Ethnic theorists today
Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Kwame Anthony Appiah
Major Phases in African American Literature
Pre-World War I
Harriet E. Wilson
themes discussed in African-American literature
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
Through the charater's quest to answer:
Who Am I?
Where Am I Going?
What Is My Culture?
Zora Neale Hurston
1960s Black Power and
Black Arts Movement
Propose separate identification and symbology
The Black Aesthetic refers to ideologies and perspectives of art that center around Black culture and life.
It can be argued that “the Black Arts movement produced some of the most exciting poetry, drama, dance, music, visual art, and fiction of the post-World War II United States” and that many important “post-Black artists” such as Toni Morrison, Ntozake Shange, Alice Walker, and August Wilson were shaped by the movement
A new black Identity
Upsurge in black culture with a special interest in primitive art
1) Literature based on and extending from long fixed native U.S. southwest home base traditions.
2) Literature based on the experiences of working class people who have migrated from Latin American countries to the U.S. during the 20th century.
3 Romantic Literature- nostalgic, nationalistic poetry of loss and exile
4 Literature of migration or immigration (hope, conflict, racism, confusion)
5 Literature of settlement- looking back at home base and immigration, from a more settled in framework with Latino tradition behind it
(1942 – 2004)
A scholar of Chicana cultural theory, feminist theory, and queer theory.
Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza
She uses striking imagery to illustrate the pain the border has brought to the mestizos by both dividing their culture and fencing them in – trapping them on one side. She exemplifies the most important reason the deadly border exists: it is the gringo way of staying safe by separating us from them. Included is a short history of the people who have inhabited the Mexico region, beginning with the oldest known inhabitants of what is now the United States and ending in the present day.
Borders between countries, nations, cultures, language and races
Maria Amparo Ruiz De Burton
Josephina Niggli's Mexican Villiage
Oscar Zeta Acosta
Three Cultural Archetypes central to Latina Identity
"mestizo,” a child with both the European and American Indian descent
La Malinche’s identity is based upon her words, her speech. Since she spoke the words of other through translations, she is given many descriptions and became many different things to many people. Her identity is ridiculed and questioned because of the words she spoke, whether they were her own or that of translation. People believe what they want to believe, and what they feel they see. La Malinche was seen as a symbol of betrayal, a mistress, a feminist icon, an Aztec goddess, mother of the Mexican nation, and ultimate rape victim of the Conquest of the Aztec empire
La Virgen de Guadalupe
known as the Virgin of Guadalupe
a celebrated Roman Catholic icon of the Virgin Mary, an image on a tilma, or peasant cloak
A woman by the name of Maria who drowns her children in order to be with the man that she loved.
She is trapped in between the living world and the spirit world.
Symbolize the combination of extremes of purity and guilt
By Gene Luen Yang
Three seemingly disparate stories that ultimately interlink: Yang explores Chinese identity in the United States and the trials of growing up as a minority
Chinese Legend the Mokey king
2nd gen Chinese-American Middle School Student Jin wang
Danny's Cousin Chin-kee
-Marginalization: Fitting into mainstream
-loss of identity
-seeking for acceptance
Usage of folktale, tradition, culture, stereotypes, subliminal messages and social media references creatively in a light-humored manner
Stereotypes in the book
Folklore in the book
Journey to the West
-16th Century Folk Novel
-Builds upon Chinese mythology, Buddhism nad Taoism
-The Story of the Monkey King, three disciples and their journey to india
- Freed by the monk and becomes his bodyguard on the journey.
- When they successfully return to China, he is granted Buddhahood for his service.
-Monkey King's struggle with being a monkey
and wanting to be human so he could be respected
and taken seriously, instead of getting laughed at
Jin's struggle with being "an outsider" (Chinese) and rejecting Wei-Chen's (new Taiwanese student) friendship because Wei-Chen was a "FOB" and Jin would rather be alone than be associated with him.
-transformed himself into Danny, the person
he wishes to be...while at the same time losing his true, Chinese identity.
Two types of Native literature
Traditional Native literature
Oral, difficult to understand
Mainstream Native literature
written by Natives in English
Kiowa writer M. Scott Momaday
Creek Native: Joy Harjo
She Had Some Horses (1983)
Love Machine (1984)
Beet Queen (1986)
House Made of Dawn (1968)
Important ideas for Native American
Indian Culture reflected a view of the natural world that emphasized harmony with nature
Human beings have a kinship with animals, plants, the land, heavenly bodies and the elements, all of which are seen as alive and aware
Humans and the nonhuman are seen as parts of the sacred world
the world is seen as a circle reflected in the cycles of life (birth, childhood, marriage and death) and the seasons of the year
Accepted the idea that man and animal have a duality of nature: both good and bad is in every
Scholars defend themselves: The United States is a very diverse country, and an advocate would say we teach kids to understand multiculturalism and diversity, and these are tools that can be used in law, government, business and teaching, which are fields graduates go into. It promotes thinking about diversity, globalization, how we do business and how we work with nonprofits."
British-born Ghanaian-American philosopher, cultural theorist, and novelist
"Sometimes I feel discriminated against, but it does not make me angry. It merely astonishes me. How can anyone deny themselves the pleasure of my company? It's beyond me." - Zora Neale Hurston
Amiri Baraka, Gwendolyn Brooks, Margaret Abigail Walker, Ernest Gaines
（1885） The Squatter and the Don