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Catherine Manno

on 10 December 2012

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Transcript of Endocrine

ENDOCRINE DYSFUNCTION PINEAL GLAND Second messenger system of the body
Uses chemical messages (hormones) that are released into the blood
Hormones control several major processes
1. Reproduction
2. Growth and development
3. Mobilization of body defenses
4. Maintenance of much of homeostasis
5. Regulation of metabolism Endocrine System Function Hormones are produced by specialized cells
Cells secrete hormones into extracellular fluids
Blood transfers hormones to target sites
These hormones regulate the activity of other cells
Hormones affect only certain tissues or organs (target cells or organs)
Target cells must have specific protein receptors Often called the "3rd eye" because strongly regulated by light stimulation
Secretes melatonin
Essential component of the circadian system

Melatonin influence on retinal physiology, sleep, body temperature regulation, immune function, and cardiovascular regulation HYPOTHALMUS Size of a pearl
Controls Mood
Endocrine Function Control
Sex Drive
Motor function control
Food and water intake regulation
Sleep-wake cycle regulation
Controls autonomic functions of peripheral nervous system THALMUS Controls pituitary gland function which in turn controls other hormone producing glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovaries and testes
Regulates functions such as temperature control, emotions, sleep, appetite and salt balance
Dysfunction may be caused by such things as surgery, infection, genetic disorders, poor nutrition and tumors. PITUITARY GLAND Pea sized
Master gland of body
Divided into an anterior lobe, intermediate lobe and posterior lobe •Growth Hormone Production
•Production of Hormones That Act on Other Endocrine Glands
•Production of Hormones That Act on the Muscles and the Kidneys
•Endocrine Function Regulation
•Storage of Hormones Produced by the Hypothalamus PITUITARY GLAND Pituitary Giant Andre the Giant THYROID Controls how quickly the body uses energy (metabolism)
Makes proteins
Controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones
Goiter: A general term for thyroid swelling. Goiters can be harmless, or can represent iodine deficiency or a condition associated with thyroid inflammation called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid, usually from a viral infection or autoimmune condition. Thyroiditis can be painful, or have no symptoms at all.
Hyperthyroidism: Excessive thyroid hormone production. Hyperthyroidism is most often caused by Graves disease or an overactive thyroid nodule.
Hypothyroidism: Low production of thyroid hormone. Thyroid damage caused by autoimmune disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism . Thyroid Problems Thyroid Problems Graves disease: An autoimmune condition in which the thyroid is overstimulated, causing hyperthyroidism.
Thyroid cancer: An uncommon form of cancer, thyroid cancer is usually curable. Surgery, radiation, and hormone treatments may be used to treat thyroid cancer.
Thyroid nodule: A small abnormal mass or lump in the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules are extremely common. Few are cancerous. They may secrete excess hormones, causing hyperthyroidism, or cause no problems.
Thyroid storm: A rare form of hyperthyroidism in which extremely high thyroid hormone levels cause severe illness. PARATHYROID GLAND Located behind the thyroid gland in the neck
Regulates calcium
Secretes a hormone called parathormone (or parathyrin) that is critical to calcium and phosphorus metabolism
Most people have four parathyroid glands
Parathyroid Disease single major disease of parathyroid glands is overactivity Hyperparathyroidism; it leads to hypercalcemia, kidney stones, osteoporosis, and various other symptoms.

Symptoms have collectively become known as "moans, groans, stones, and bones."

Most common symptom is fatigue, but depression, memory loss, and bone aches are also very common

TX = Surgical Removal THYMUS GLAND Pink-grey organ that lies underneath the top of the breastbone
Makes a type of white blood cell known as a T-lymphocyte. These T-lymphocytes govern cellular immunity, which means they help cells recognize and destroy invading bacteria, virus, etc., abnormal cell growth such as cancer, and foreign tissue. THYMUS GLAND DYSFUNCTION Person with under active thymus gland will be prone to getting sick often
Infections chronic in nature and prolonged
Other symptoms include swollen glands, depression, extreme sweating, and puffiness of the throat
Likely candidate for cancer
Lab Tests - if you remove a thymus before birth, animals do not reject organ transplants however they have no immune system to fight infection or cancer.
Myasthenia Gravis Chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body
Hallmark of myasthenia gravis is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest
Muscles such as those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often, but not always, involved in the disorder
Antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the muscle contraction from occurring - these are produced in part by the thymus ADRENAL GLANDS Located on the top of each kidney
Responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress
Make epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline)
Produces other hormones necessary for fluid and electrolyte (salt) balance in the body such as cortisone and aldosterone
Release some sex hormones
Cushings Disease, Addison's Disease
PANCREAS oblong flattened gland located deep in the abdomen
endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide
digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion of carbs, lipids and proteins in the small intestine
PANCREATIC PROBLEMS Pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas. Rupture, and pancreatic juice leakage causes a pancreatic self-digestion. Pancreatic cancers; mortality rate is very high.Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas.
Secondary diabetes is a special type, which can be caused by many factors. TESTES Male sex organ
Produce sperm
Produce male sex hormones - specifically testosterone
Influenced by gonadotropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary OVARY Ovum-producing reproductive organ
Secrete both estrogen and progesterone
Responsible for production and release of a "ripe" egg
OVARIAN HORMONES Estrogen is responsible for the appearance of secondary sex characteristics for females at puberty and for the maturation and maintenance of the reproductive organs in their mature functional state.

Progesterone prepares uterus for pregnancy, and mammary gland for lactation.

Progesterone functions with estrogen by promoting menstrual cycle changes in the endometrium. HORMONES OF THE PITUITARY GLAND ANTERIOR LOBE: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH) and Prolactin

POSTERIOR LOBE: oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH)

Myasthenia Gravis
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