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Catering in the Cosmos

Astronomy research presentation on nutrition in outer space.
by

Alyssa Wolf

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Catering in the Cosmos

A Look at Astronaut Nutrition Catering in
the Cosmos Space Menu Thesis Preview of Main Points Logistics of Eating in Space:
Planning the Menu Logistics of Eating in Space:
Preparation Logistics of Eating in Space:
Packaging Problem of Weightlessness:
Muscle Atrophy -What food do you like most ?
-What looks the least appetizing?
-What surprises you? The earth is a safe environment for the human body, and when astronauts leave earth, special precautions must be taken to ensure that they stay healthy. Nutritionists and experts carefully plan menus and exercise regimes to provide sufficient nutrients and prevent problems due to weightlessness. Nutrition is, without question, vital both for the health of astronauts today and for future generations of space travel. -Logistics of eating in space
-Health problems that astronauts face
-Psychology of eating in space
-Proper nutrition -Experts: NASA employs dieticians and food scientists to plan menus.
-Pre-flight: Eat a normal, healthy diet.
-Analyze: Experts analyze data to improve future programs. -1960's: tubes, cubes, and powders!
-Today: Tastings 5-8 months before launch to plan the menu. -Fresh produce, ready-to-eat, freeze dried, or thermostabilized.
-Flexible packaging, cans, or plastic cups.
-Just add water
-Refrigerator and oven access
-Water that has been generated from shuttle fuel cells. -W/o gravity, important muscles are no longer needed
-After returning for no longer than a month, the muscles usually don't have the same mass function
-Sometimes, body is no longer able to walk, or do simple actions
-Rehabilitation can be 2+ years.
-Loss of muscle mass, strength & endurance occur especially in lower extremities
-Changes in muscle + effects of microgravity on connective tissues + demands of work= astronauts at risk of fatigue & injury Effects of Weightlessness Bone/Osteoporosis -In space, the body loses 1-2% of bone mass each month (a post-menopausal woman loses in a yr)
-This amount of bone lost over 2 years = the bone loss of an 85 year old
- The skeletal system incredibly susceptible to breaks and stress fractures
-Decreases in bone density & strength are more pronounced in pelvis; much of the loss is reversible upon return to Earth
-Prolonged exposure to weightlessness increases the risks of kidney stones
- Solutions to Bone & Muscle Loss -Group of bungee cords or resistance exercise: Allows work of muscles while in space
-2008- Advanced Resitive Exercise Device (ARED):
doubles the max stimulated weight up to 600lbs
-A vacuum treadmill:
Placing a vacuum suction around the waist of a person helps to hold them to the treadmill. Amount of vacuum exerted can be increased to compensate for weight.
- In prolonged missions, exercise is effective at minimizing large muscle atrophy & astronauts use a cycle ergometer/ treadmill with downward applied pressure. -Exercise has little effect on bone loss, but reduces muscle shrinkage & improves well-being.
- Astronauts may spend several hours per day on a treadmill, etc. The more they exercise in space, the less time it takes to recover. The Psychology of Eating in Space -Nutritionists work hard to plan healthy menus but they also need to address whether the astronauts will want to eat the food or not.
-What's different in space?
-Diminished sense of smell and taste
-Reduced appetite and thirst Brian Ratcliffe:
Doctor of Nutrition
Professor at Robert Gordon University
Space nutrition expert

“Lots of little developments have improved the food provided in space. Maintaining energy intake is difficult because of the reduced appetite and sensory responses to food that occur in space. Using culinary spices and herbs to flavour foods seems to help astronauts to keep the energy intake up better. Also, the simple strategy of increasing the variety of food stuffs helps to maintain the appeal of eating. It is reported that maintaining the discipline of regular meals helps to keep intake up too.” -Diminished taste in space = more spices.
-Important for them to sit down and eat a regular meal Getting Proper Nutrition Expert: Scott M. Smith,
Ph.D.Nutritionist, Manager for Nutritional Biochemistry, NASA Conclusion Space nutrition is an exciting field that has greatly aided man’s quest for travel among the stars. Experts must continue to study the effects of space travel on the human body. They hope to make new advances for prolonged space travel, related to packaging and long term health in space. Questions? By Alyssa Wolf & Katelyn Drury November 19, 2012 Works Cited -Amount of sodium is limited in an astronaut’s diet- too much can lead to bone loss.
-Nasa scientists have reformulated more than 80 space foods to reduce Sodium
-The body usually makes vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight, but spacecraft is shielded to protect from radiation
-Vitamin D supplements are recommended
Sodium & Vitamin D - Eating enough, taking the planned vitamin D supplements, getting enough fluid, eating fish and vegetables, minimizing sodium where possible
-"From a nutrition perspective, the most important thing is to eat well and get enough calories, and the other issues will come along. Crews that ate well, had good vitamin D status, and exercised hard managed to maintain bone mineral density, come home with improved body composition (more lean/less fat)." "The issue of bone demineralization cannot be addressed entirely nutritionally but astronauts need to ensure that they have a good Calcium and Vitamin D status before the prolonged flight." -Brian Ratcliffe -Astronauts usually lose weight during space travel
-Eating enough calories is important, if they are eating enough calories, they will get enough of most other nutrients, vitamins & minerals
-Change in the Taste of the food & Odor of the space craft
-Fluid Shifts- lack of water & dehydration
-Loss of appetite Calcium -Calcium isn't absorbed well in space
-Answer is not to take in more, but to help the body use the Ca more
-In space, the body feels it doesn't need as much bone mass, so it starts breaking down bone (no specific solution). Taking in Enough Energy Peer Review by Brittany Carlsen

Amidor, Toby. "Talking to the Experts: NASA Dietician Barbara Rice." Food.com. Food Network, 2011. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.foodnetwork.com/healthyeats/2011/05/03/ talking-to-the-experts-nasa-dietitian-barbara-rice/>.

"How Does Spending Prolonged Time in Microgravity Affect the Bodies of Astronauts?" ScientificAmerican.com. N.p., 6 Oct. 2003. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-does-spending-prolong>.

Ickes, Kevin. "The Effects of Long Term Space Travel on the Human Body." N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://muggins.org/papers/PDFS/SpaceTravel.pdf>.

Jeffs, Bill. "Good Diet, Proper Exercise Help Protect Astronaut's Bones." Nasa.gov. NASA, 24 Aug. 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/ bone_study_news.html>

Lane, Helen W., Ph.D. "Nutrition and Metabolism During Prolonged Space Flight." Nasa Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. 18 Nov. 12. Lecture. Powerpoint slides found at <www.umac.org/about/pubs/food_space_helen_lane.pdf>

"Living in Space." ESA.com. European Space Agency, Nov. 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.esa.int/esaHS/ESAGO90VMOC_astronauts_0.html>.

Millner, Jack. "Astronaut Nutrition: A Space Banquet for the Future." HumansInvent.com. N.p., 13 Mar. 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.humansinvent.com/>.

"NASA Facts: Space Food." Nasa.gov. Lynden B. Johnson Space Center, 2002. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/71426main_FS-2002-10-079-JSC.pdf>.

Ratcliffe, Brian, BSc Ph.D., RNutr FHEA Cbiol FSB, School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences at Robert Gordon University. E-mail interview. 10 Nov. 2012.

Smith, Scott M., Ph.D., Nutritionist, Manager for Nutritional Biochemistry and Environmental Sciences Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. E-mail interview. 9 Nov. 2012. Burrito Making in Space
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