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Civil Rights and Social Change
Transcript of Civil Rights and Social Change
Chapter 29 in Americans
Brown v. Board of Education
The 1954 decision reversed the "separate but equal" precedent set by Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896.
Linda Brown's family was represented by the
. The case was argued by a lawyer named Thurgood Marshall, who would later become the first African-American Supreme Court justice.
The court's decision effectively ended the legal segregation of the races in public schools, and immediately effected more than 12 million students in 21 states.
Chief Justice Earl Warren's opinion stated,
"Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
The civil rights movement in the South was a response to institutionalized segregation and "Jim Crow" laws that denied basic constitutional rights to African Americans.
Crisis in Little Rock
In the fall of 1957, nine young African Americans were the first to enroll at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to block the students from entering the school.
A federal judge ruled that Faubus didn't have the authority to do this, and ordered him to allow the "Little Rock Nine" to enter the school.
It didn't go well...
15 year-old Elizabeth Eckford didn't get the message to meet the rest of the group. She arrived at the school alone, and came face to face with an angry mob.
President Eisenhower was forced to act
The National Guard was put under federal control and 1000 members of the 101st Airborne were sent to Little Rock to protect the nine.
From "Eyes on the Prize"
in Montgomery, Alabama...
A bus boycott was launched after Rosa Parks' historic act of
Led by Martin Luther King Jr., the boycott lasted 381 days and resulted in a Supreme Court Decision that outlawed segregation on buses (within states... more on this later).
King went on to form the
), a group dedicated to fighting prejudice and discrimination via nonviolent demonstrations and protest.
Members of the
helped college students in the South form the
), which harnessed the energy and idealism of young people to promote change.
King's belief in nonviolent non-cooperation faced direct opposition from some civil rights leaders.
A 15-year-old girl named Claudette Colvin was the first African-American to refuse to give up her seat on a bus... 9 months before Rosa Parks.
groups of white and African American civil rights activists who participated in Freedom Rides: bus trips through the American South in 1961 to protest segregated bus terminals.
Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. It prohibited unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964