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Cris Martin Mendieta

on 1 October 2014

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6.1Digital divide:
Refers to the gap between the people who have access to a computer and those who do not.
-It can refer to individuals,social groups and communities worldwide.

FACTORS that contribute:
6.3Legal systems
Legal information is available online for everyone that can access to it.
-Finance services are provided as well.
6.4Computer Fraud
Any act using computers, the Internet, Internet devices, and Internet services to defraud people, companies, or government agencies of money, revenue, or Internet access.
There are many methods used to perform these illegal activities
6.2Catering for disabilities
Most computers include input devices that helps people with disabilities to be able to use ICT.
6.5Antisocial use of ICT
Occur when one person has access to another´s machine,either directly or indirectly.
-This can only be achieved through the use of a computer network
-Nowadays is really difficult hack a computer unless the hacker have the skills needed for it.PCs protected against hacking,viruses and spyware.
6.6Home Entertainment systems
A home entertainment system is a set of audio and video components that provides the same exhilarating experience of watching a movie inside a theater in the comfort of your living room.
6.7Internet auctions
Website that allows people to put an item that they own up for sale.
Cristina Martin Mendieta-Y13
-Increased opportunities for
personal,educational and
employment advancement
-Tecnology outdated very qickly
Economic Factor.

Lack of money

Pc hardware & software is too expensive for many people.
Social Factor
Now,most people have access to Internet thanks to libraries,etc.

Many of today´s job require ICT skills and qualifications.

People without education in ICT are at disadvantage & are unable to work.
Geographical Factor
Availability of the Internet throughout the world shows large differences between world regions.
Cultural Factor.
-Low quality internet connections.

-Difficult technical assistance.

-High-priced Internet connections

Lack of motivation.
Refered as the
global digital divide.

Poorly educated nations will
be unable to compete effectively
in the global economy.

Health services:
Provide individuals with details about medicines,about doctors,waiting lists...

However ,can only be accessed by individuals with ICT facilities.
Employment opportunities:
Most jobs require an understanding of and some skills in ICT.

Online recruitment offered by job agencies.
-People that can't leave home,or move,or have hearing or sight problems are able to use ICT.

Instant messaging+web cam
Stick keys
Concept keyboards
Tracker ball
Touch screen
a)Shopping can be done by people with physical disabilities not leaving home,using the computer.

b)Banking helps by internet as well people with disabilities or speech problems.

c)Booking system,customers can choose an appropriate seat in an appropriate position.

d)Health services,employment and goverment
Public medium (such as newspaper column) or place used for debates in which anyone can participate.
Used to refer to a website that contains a writer's own experience,observations or opinions written at various points of the day.
Similar to a blog in structure & logic, wiki allows anyone to edit,delete or modify content that has been placed on the web site, including the work of previous authors.
-Increased involvement in focus groups.
Individuals are the ones who need decide if they will put the effort to learn or not.
-Increased influence with political representatives
-Inexperienced people regarding themselves as expert lawyers.
Used in market research.
-Members to log on at different times & post their contributions to the discussion on a form of message board.
Forums, weblogs...
People who learn few facts about for example law,they start thinking they are an expert just because of that.
-Some fraudsters get jobs in retail outlets or restaurants ,to use a skimming device.

-People´s post can be intercepted and credit cards or their statements can be stolen.

-Some are able to access databases of financial records of companies.

-Phishing and Pharming.

Once the fraudsters have enough info about the person they are going to defraud and start using it in credit cards ,loans, etc to take the individual’s bank account and to buy goods over the Internet
Misuse of personal data.
Personal data: Data about a living person such that it identifies that person. Personal data items as:

Deleting personal data.
Can be achieved in a number of ways.
Hackers may use a logic bomb. Known as a 'delayed action' piece of malicious code,go offin one of 3 ways:
Amending personal data.
Through illegal methods,hackers access to the data before they can change the data.
Distributing personal data
>Issue related to the privacy of data.
Illegal distribution of data for financial gain comer under the act of computer fraud,
>Personal data should be confidential so the individual may not want their details to be made public.
Pieces of malicious program code.
Created to infect computers and move through them.
Can be downloaded also from web pages.
Data like these can be misused by deleting,amending,or passing it on,
the third one is the worst if people do not want others to know any items of that data
After a period of time OR when pre-defined date has been reached.
When user fails to respond to a computer command.
When user carries out a specific task (amending a file).
Cyber bullying
Unsolicited usually commercial e-mail sent to a large number of addresses.
Easy to create.
People using technologies to intimidate other individuals.
-satellite television
(communication satellites,transponder)
-Internet television
(people online,connection speed...)

Music centers.
(FM tuner,CD player,amplifier,USB port...)
-portable or personal stereo systems

Interactive games consoles.
(Play users all over the world,console with the necessary hardware links to Internet)

Video on demand systems.

• Surround sound- sound reproduction that often uses three or more transmission channels to enhance the illusion of a live hearing.

• Large wide screen-to create this effect it is needed a large TV.

• Clarity of picture-picture more clearly and more highly defined.
(LCD or plasma screen)

Not have the rigorous security than many large commercial online shopping sites.
Delivery is not secure.
Online auctions break down and remove the physical limitations of traditional auctions such as geography, presence, time, space, and a small target audience.
Problems using the system.

Online transactions services.

Goods intercepted from online auction details.

Distributing personal data.

People buying at the auction,are buying items form individuals so,the site cannot be held responsible for the quality of the goods.

Once you have accepted the item,you have to continue with the transaction.

Most sites have the facility to enquire about the item you wish to purchase.
-Paypal is a good example of an e-commerce, through auction sites.

-Need to give bank account/credit card details to the money transfer organization.

Security of the site>>encryption as well as user name and password.
-Hackers could get into the system and find out the address details of the buyer.

-Could only happen in an insecure site the well-known places can prevent these problems.
-Deletion of data would just be an antisocial act but there are such people who would do this.

-Amending the data would be the best option as to amend the delivery details and have goods delivered in every direction he/she wants.
6.8Booking Systems
Fast expansion over travel and concert,cinema and theatre.

Affecting way customers buy tickets. Booking always expect to customer pay extra fee-(unnecessary for some).
-confirmation that booking has been made
-no double seats
-printing out electronic tickets for confirmation
-Virtual tour

-All airline provide online booking.
-Airline companies can use the reservation systems to make a flight arrangements,view current reservations and check passenger lists.
Ticketing services are:
online access for the public
online access for travel agents
integrated facility allowing airline companies to make bookings and receive bookings.
Once here you may not need to log on into the site,at this stage there are no personal details needed.
2. Booking details
-Not unusual to see offers to encourage customers to join a loyalty scheme,where points are given to the customer to book a flight.

-After gaining lots of points using same airline,they can exchange these points for free flights.
-Encouraging consumers to book only with them.

3. Available flights
If there is more than one available,customer choose one before going to the next page
4. Cost,Customer details and payment options
-This page shows the cost of the flight and the total costs for all the travellers.
5. Checking in
The printout is used as an e-ticket.

Also possible to log in online,clicking internet check-in and type the e-ticket number. Customer then selects the seats and the print out for boarding pass.

Advantage=can choose your seat without having to wait until you get to the check-in desk and find a seat that already has been taken.
Processes involved in booking a flight:
1. Home page
After typing all in,checks for the availability of seats using a
Submit button.
Travel agents

Rail companies



A company that arranges hotel rooms, plane tickets etc for people who want to travel
-In order to do this,should obtain either
purpose-built software.
-Travelers book rail tickets online with the rail company.

-Type in the date of travel,departure and destination,website will show times of the train + info(changes or time)

-This,enables company to make important savings compared with the traditional method.
-Provide the chance to select a cinema in an area of choice and then to choose the film.

-Computer based booking system allow cinema owners and managers to examine many ways of cutting costs and making profits. (reducing number of staff they need at the office).
-Almost identical to cinema booking systems.

-Booking systems take 2 forms:
kiosk system operated by the theater employees.
Online internet service

for companies
Travel agents and airlines no need to rent high street premises(expensive)
Companies can employ fewer staff-lower total wage bill
Travel agents & airlines no need to pay running costs for electricity,heating and lighting
Companies can attract more customers
for customers
No expenses on transport
People with disabilities find it easier than having to move
customers can book at any time
No risk of double booking
They know instantly if the booking has been successful
for the business
Less personal touch,harder for the business to sell other services.
Potential for fraud & interception of info by hackers-losing money
Paying website developers
Retrain staff may be needed and it is costly
for customers
Must have a computer,Internet access and basic computer skills
Hackers may intercept data and take money from individual´s account
Phone bills may increase
6.9 Information Services
-Government needs to be aware of regulations and trading with other countries.
-Internet allows this & to take less time to research.
-Companies need to ensure that the accounting for each value of purchase tax is carried out.
-Trading abroad means companies are extending the market they want & also to compare a wider range of suppliers.

-If companies are importing goods from suppliers,important to look at their trading methods.
-For exporting companies,important to plan ahead-aware of the methods of payment available.
Services offered by the government on Internet:

Education & learning-allowances paid to students,university and higher learnings.

Motoring-driving license,tests,advice on buying or selling a vehicle...

Home & community-buying,selling & renting a house,info on what to do in case of flooding & what to do in neighborhood nuisance.

Employment-info about a job,working hours,allowances...

Money,tax & benefits-covers benefit,tax credits,debt,managng money.

Health & well being-info about medical records,health services,smoking...

Rights & responsibilities-info about identify theft,data protection,consumer rights & how to make a complaint.
-Advertise in order to recruit students.
-Local awareness,for collegues and university national awareness
-Aim:increase public awareness of the excellence of the institution.
-Website is fundamental to recruitment.. Students need to know what it offers,courses and extra curricular activities.
-Provide up-to-date figures of prices of stocks and shares to enable business and individuals to manage their finances.
-Many of these websites allow investors to buy shares,but they change a fee.
-Fee can vary considerably.
This sites also advise individuals about the 'right to know' laws available in certain countries.

The existence of this websites has undermined the role of newspaper $ other media.
The use og blogs to raise public awareness of info is now common for them.
-Exists web pages that provide teachers with info about educational research.

-Greatest service is to provide info about the results of research being carried out by other organizations.

-Other countries have similr sites that allow educationalists to access the latest research both in their own countries and abroad.
6.10 Local,regional & central government.
Central government
Island revenue allows individuals to complete their tax forms online & then make payments.
Local Government:
Issuing of documents:

Having really accessible online facilities to apply for documents (passports,identity cards,driving licenses).
Governments $ internet security:
-Employ as much security as other web pages.
-Info used to log on is transferred through a (SSL-Secure Socket Layer).
-Also must ensure their operating system always have the latest security measures installed.
<Income tax records-Individuals are now able to file their tax claims online,there is now a wealth of info held by the government on its citizens.
<Tax collection and payment-Governments all around the world collect taxes online. They are also provided with an option t o make electronic payment of taxes via Internet using debit cards for example.

<Budget calculations-Most governments use computer models d spending & income to calculate their budges.
usually local governments have their own,hold info about the services they offer and often include online services for individuals to use.
Electoral register->
citizen being able to vote in an election.
When registering an individual must supply:
-other names
-previous surname
-current address
-date of move

Local tax records>
Individuals paying their local tax online.
Budget calculations->
local governments use computer models of spending and income to calculate their budgets.
Passports->People being able to apply online for a passport.If it is stolen it provide enough data for identity fraud.

Identity cards->many countries over the world already have identity card system but often,in order to prove they are who they say they are,applicants have to attend a short interview to obtain the card.

Driving licenses->Reduces number of staff needed to process applications as a greater number of applicants can be processed in a shorter period of time---fewer staff to input the data.
6.11 Use of ICT in teaching and learning.
Important that students have a knowledge and understanding o all aspects of the use of ICT in education.
Schools,Colleges and Universities:
CAL,CBL,CAI $ CBT.Students with disabilities spend more time in this.
CAL--computer is neutral,same with everyone,they are able to use the computer interactively. CAI--student involved in their own learning experience,choosing different ways.

(aided assessment) refers to the use of computers to assess students’ progress,assessments can vary in format: consisting of a pre-printed test which students mark their responses, which then processed automatically using an optical mark reader; or involving the direct input of students’ responses into a computer terminal.

Antisocial use of ICT.
Hacker may do(delete data,adequate security and use of firewalls should prevent it/pass copies around,alternative paper would help/change some of the data,with an encrypted paper this is impossible/delete responses,backups and encryption would help.)
Examination boards:
Computer aided assessment--papers scanned b workers at examination board,then put into a server.Paper marked by the examiner,marks for each question. Computer adds the marks to get the total.

Antisocial use of ICT--all marks are encrypted & systems are equipped with firewalls,should be mpossible to access to it.
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