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Edwardian Era: 1901-1915

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Cindy Hu

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of Edwardian Era: 1901-1915

Edwardian Era: 1901-1915
Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness (1902)
Published in 1902, Heart of Darkness was based on Conrad's own experience of his trip up the Congo River and the decay of morality he saw. The story is told by a man named Charlie Marlow, about his journey into a world of darkness and evil. As Marlow enters the thick jungle, he witnesses the horrors and corruption of power represented by a man named Mr. Kurtz.
There were four types of power that were demonstrated in the novel:
The Second Boer War (1899-1902)
The Boer War was a battle fought between the British Empire and the South Africans, also known as the two Boer Republics. The second one lasted for three years and ended with the victory of the British and the conquer of both republics by the British Empire. The war caused more than 40,000 casualties for both sides, more than 20,000 were civilian casualties.
Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Known as the "first great war of the 20th century", the Russian-Japanese War broke out in 1904 due to ambitions over Manchuria and Korea. It ended a year later with a Japanese victory, and began the worldwide resentment towards Japan.
Romanian Peasant's Revolt (1907)
Being discontent with their inequality in land ownership, the peasants rebelled against the land owners and destroy their property. The army fired at the peasants in a state of emergency. Up to 11,000 people were killed during the revolt.
Ernest Rutherford: Atomic Theory (1911)
Rutherford, in "The scattering of a and b particles by matter and the structure of the atom," thinking about the nature of the nuclei which could produce radiation, described the atom as a small, heavy nucleus, surrounded by electrons.
Sinking of the RMS Titanic (1912)
The Titanic was the largest passenger liner in service at the time. It was four days into its first voyage from Southampton, England to New York City when it hit an iceberg and sank within three hours. The disaster resulted in more 1500 deaths, and was one of the most deadliest maritime tragedies in history.
Beginning of WWI (1914)
All the tension between the European countries finally snapped when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This was the spark to the first worldwide war in history. The beginning of WWI marked the end to a period of grace and peace and began a time of complete brutality and violence.
The Power of One
The Power of Corruption
The Power of Masses
The Power of Hope
The Edwardian Era is referred to as the period in which King Edward VII ruled the United Kingdom. It began in 1901 when Queen Victoria passed away and her son Edward inherited the throne and ended when King Edward VII died in 1910, but the Edwardian Era can be extended beyond his death to around 1915. Although confined to a short number of years, the Edwardian Era was both a period of style and elegance as well as change and controversy. There were significant breakthroughs in science and major accomplishments in art and literature. Overall, the 15 years of the Edwardian Era were filled with advancements and prosperity.
The overall condition and society in the Congo/Africa during this time has been influenced by the power of the masses of the white men coming in and taking all of the ivory from the locals.

The power of the masses is not always easily recognizable in this book but it does play a very big role in shaping the novel and leading it in the direction it takes.
The power of the masses is shown in the
Heart of Darkness
is when the group of natives (Africans) attack Marlow's steamboat as they head up the Congo and how they ambush it from all directions and although only armed with bow and arrow they used a large group to put up a fierce fight in what could be seen as defence of their home land from the outsiders.
The Power of Hope can be found a few times in this book. The first sign of Power of Hope would be when Marlow never gave up to find Mr. Kurtz. He always had hope to go and find Kurtz no matter what people said to him, or what obstacles that are in his way. This is a very powerful thing because when someone has hope over something or someone it is very powerful.

“It made you feel very small, very lost, and yet it was not altogether depressing, that feeling... For me it crawled towards Kurtz-exclusively (Conrad,97).”

The Power of Hope isn't put in the book as much as other "Power of's." When it is used in the book, it is used in a powerful way that makes the reader think how powerful one person can be to a whole nation, or even the world.

The power of one was displayed through one particular character, Mr. Kurtz. Agent Kurtz himself was the personification of power and control. He was, in some aspects, more powerful than all the other men put together. His mind was so impenetrably dark that his thoughts entered the minds of those around him and changed their way of thinking. Everyone who knew him got sucked into his black hole and became obsessed and devoted to him, consciously or unconsciously.
“‘To speak plainly, he raided the country,’ I said. He nodded. ‘Not alone, surely!’ He muttered something about the villages round that lake. ‘Kurtz got the tribe to follow him did he?’ I suggested. He fidgeted a little. ‘They adored him,’ he said. (Conrad 125)
Numerous times throughout the story Conrad uses analogy and symbolism to unearth the corrupt nature of imperialism, demonstrate how Marlow is slowly corrupted by the darkness of the jungle, and how Kurtz fell into insanity from the corruption of greed and power.
Kurtz stands for the corruption of unchecked power in the story. He has been left alone in the heart of the Congo, and has fallen to greed and power. When Marlow meets him he has so much power over the natives that they regard him as a god. He has become obsessed with ivory and even hoards it which leads to his insanity. When Marlow finally takes him away, he becomes sick and dies. His last words are “The horror, the horror!” (Conrad) Maybe what he meant by these last words is that he finally realized how corrupted and dark he had become, and all the horrors that he had committed against the natives.
Corruption is the main theme behind Heart of Darkness. It is used to describe the imperialism and how the system is corrupt, tempts Marlow into falling into the darkness, and corrupts Kurtz to the point of driving him insane.

Rupert Chawner Brooke
He was born on August 3, 1887 in Rugby a small market town in Warwickshire, England. Brooke gained his interest in poetry at the age of 14 when he attended his fathers school. His first poems were written in 1909 and his very first book was published in 1911. Brooke traveled a lot and in doing this, became popular in many literary as well as political circles with famous personnel. Brooke joined the British army around 1914 and while doing so produced many of his famous poems including, "The Soldier" and "Peace." His career came to an end in 1905 when he passed away from blood poisoning while on duty.
The Soldier

If I should die, think only this of me:
That there's some corner of a foreign field
That is for ever England. There shall be
In that rich earth a richer dust concealed;
A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware,
Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam,
A body of England's, breathing English air,
Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home.

And think, this heart, all evil shed away,
A pulse in the eternal mind, no less
Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given;
Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day;
And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness,
In hearts at peace, under an English heaven.

Now, God be thanked Who has watched us with His hour,
And caught our youth, and wakened us from sleeping,
With hand made sure, clear eye, and sharpened power,
To turn, as swimmers into cleanness leaping,
Glad from a world grown old and cold and weary,
Leave the sick hearts that honour could not move,
And half-men, and their dirty songs and dreary,
And all the little emptiness of love!

Oh! we, who have known shame, we have found release there,
Where there's no ill, no grief, but sleep has mending,
Naught broken save this body, lost but breath;
Nothing to shake the laughing heart's long peace there
But only agony, and that has ending;
And the worst friend and enemy is but Death.

Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling was born in 1865 in Bombay, and is famous for many short stories and poems including the
, and
the Jungle Book
. He received many awards for his works including a Nobel prize in 1907. He died in 1936.
If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you can dream - and not make dreams your master,
If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build 'em up with worn-out tools:

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it all on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: "Hold on!"

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings - nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds' worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And - which is more - you'll be a Man, my son!

God of our fathers, known of old,
Lord of our far-flung battle-line,
Beneath whose awful Hand we hold
Dominion over palm and pine—
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!

The tumult and the shouting dies;
The Captains and the Kings depart:
Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice,
An humble and a contrite heart.
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!

Far-called, our navies melt away;
On dune and headland sinks the fire:
Lo, all our pomp of yesterday

Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the Nations, spare us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!

If, drunk with sight of power, we loose
Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe,
Such boastings as the Gentiles use,
Or lesser breeds without the Law—
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget—lest we forget!

For heathen heart that puts her trust
In reeking tube and iron shard,
All valiant dust that builds on dust,
And guarding, calls not Thee to guard,
For frantic boast and foolish word—
Thy mercy on Thy People, Lord!

William Butler Yeats
William Butler Yeats was born in Dublin, Ireland on June 13, 1865. His father was a well-known lawyer and painter. Yeats was educated in London and Dublin. In 1912, he published his first well-known book of poetry The Green Helmet. In the next 30 years, he wrote some of the most influential poetry of the 20th century including The Wild Swans at Coole, The Tower, and The Winding Stair. Yeats was awarded the Nobel Prize of Literature in 1923. He died on January 28, 1939.
The Consolation
I had this thought awhile ago,
“My darling cannot understand
What I have done, or what would do
In this blind bitter land.”

And I grew weary of the sun
Until my thoughts cleared up again,
Remembering that the best I have done
Was done to make it plain;

That every year I have cried, “At length
My darling understands it all,
Because I have come into my strength,
And words obey my call.”

That had she done so who can say
What would have shaken from the sieve?
I might have thrown poor words away
And been content to live.

His Dream
I swayed upon the gaudy stern
The butt end of a steering oar,
And everywhere that I could turn
Men ran upon the shore.

And though I would have hushed the crowd
There was no mother’s son but said,
“What is the figure in a shroud
Upon a gaudy bed?”

And fishes bubbling to the brim
Cried out upon that thing beneath,
It had such dignity of limb,
By the sweet name of Death.

Though I’d my finger on my lip,
What could I but take up the song?
And fish and crowd and gaudy ship
Cried out the whole night long,

Crying amid the glittering sea,
Naming it with ecstatic breath,
Because it had such dignity
By the sweet name of Death.

Historical and Political Events
Scientific Advancements
Artistic Movements
Literary Accomplishments
Alfred Lothar Wegener: Continental Drift (1912)
Wegener proposed a unified theory of continental drift, which opposed to the sinking of continents, based on fossil and glacial evidence.
The Edwardian Era ended shortly after Kind Edward VII lived his short reign and died in 1910. Even though the Edwardian Era is one of the shortest Eras, it is nevertheless a significant and eventful one. The Edwardian Era was the brief period of grace and style before the world wars broke out. The amount of accomplished literature, advancements in science, new styles of art, and important world events that were presented during these 15 years is truly spectacular. All in all, the Edwardian Era was a time period full of notable happenings, a time period worth looking back at and discovering its unique events.
Other Notable Authors and Literature
1900: Edward Elgar - The Dream of Gerontius, a choral piece
1902: James Barrie – Peter Pan, first appearance on stage
1903: Jack London – The Call of the Wild
1903: W.E.B. Dubois – The Souls of Black Folk
1905: Edith Wharton – The House of Mirth
1906: John Galsworthy – The Silver Box, Justice, The Man of Property
1906: Alfred Noyes – The Highwayman
1907: John Millington Synge – Playboy of the Western World
1908: Kenneth Graham – The Wind in the Willows
1908: Arnold Bennett – The Old Wives’ Tale
1912: George Bernard Shaw – Pygmalion
1913: D.H. Lawrence – Sons and Lovers
1913: Willa Cathers – O Pioneers!
1915: Ford Madox Ford – The Good Soldier; founded The English Review

The Russian Revolution of 1905
The Russian revolution began with Bloody Sunday where troops open fire on a square of protestors. It continued on for two years until the revolutionaries were defeated in 1907.
Disastrous Earthquakes
1906: San Francisco earthquake kills over 500.
1908: Southern Italy Earthquake kills over 150,000.
Orville and Wilbur Wright: The First Airplane (1903)
Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright achieved flight in a manned, gasoline power-driven, heavier-than-air flying machine. Orville was at the controls of the world’s first powered flight while Wilbur observed.
John Ambrose Fleming: The Diode (1904)
The diode was a vital part of the radio, first made from two-electrode vacuum-tube rectifier.
Christian Hulsmeyer: RADAR (1904)
The first radar system used for shipping was invented by developing a wireless apparatus and discovering the electromagnetic waves.
Technological Inventions
sewing machine
electric food mixer
vacuum cleaner
air conditioner
fire extinguisher
household detergent
synthetic ammonia
neon lighting
diesel locomotive
stainless steel
tear gas
Scientific Discoveries
amino acids
vitamins A and D
quantum theory
relativity theory
genetic heredity
atomic structure
x-ray diffraction
James Barrie: Peter Pan (1904)
Peter Pan
, also known as
The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up
opened in London for the first time as a play. In 1911, the play was expanded into a novel called
Peter and Wendy
Henri Matisse
Frank Baum: The Wizard of Oz (1903)
The Wizard of Oz, based on the book by Frank Baum, opened on Broadway as a musical to huge success.
Henri Matisse was one of the leaders of the Fauvism movement, which lasted from 1900 to 1910. His art was expressed in bright colours and abstract ways. Some of his most famous works include Woman With A Hat, A Glimpse of Notre Dame in the Late Afternoon, and Le Bonheur de Vivre.
Thomas Hardy
Author Thomas Hardy was born in Dorset, England in 1840. He wanted to be an architect in London and was pretty successful. Later he realized that he has more success in writing when he had an successful publication of "Far from the Maddening Crowd." After winning that, he returned to Dorset to be a writer. When he died, in his life he wrote 18 novels and collections of short stories and poems that will be remembered by many.
The Man He Killed
Had he and I but met
By some old ancient inn,
We should have set us down to wet
Right many a nipperkin!

But ranged as infantry,
And staring face to face,
I shot at him as he at me,
And killed him in his place.

I shot him dead because—
Because he was my foe,
Just so: my foe of course he was;
That's clear enough; although

He thought he'd 'list, perhaps,
Off-hand like—just as I—
Was out of work—had sold his traps—
No other reason why.

Yes; quaint and curious war is!
You shoot a fellow down
You'd treat, if met where any bar is,
Or help to half a crown.

The Convergence of the Twine
In a solitude of the sea
Deep from human vanity,
And the Pride of Life that planned her, stilly couches she.

Steel chambers, late the pyres
Of her salamandrine fires,
Cold currents thrid, and turn to rhythmic tidal lyres.

Over the mirrors meant
To glass the opulent
The sea-worm crawls — grotesque, slimed, dumb, indifferent.

Jewels in joy designed
To ravish the sensuous mind
Lie lightless, all their sparkles bleared and black and blind.

Dim moon-eyed fishes near
Gaze at the gilded gear
And query: "What does this vaingloriousness down here?" ...

Well: while was fashioning
This creature of cleaving wing,
The Immanent Will that stirs and urges everything

Prepared a sinister mate
For her — so gaily great —
A Shape of Ice, for the time far and dissociate.

And as the smart ship grew
In stature, grace, and hue,
In shadowy silent distance grew the Iceberg too.

Alien they seemed to be;
No mortal eye could see
The intimate welding of their later history,

Or sign that they were bent
By paths coincident
On being anon twin halves of one august event,

Till the Spinner of the Years
Said "Now!" And each one hears,
And consummation comes, and jars two hemispheres.

A Presentation by Cindy, Matthew, John and Ayden
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