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OCR The Memory and Reaction Time

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by

Geraint Davies

on 2 February 2016

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Transcript of OCR The Memory and Reaction Time

“We all have our time machines. Some take us back, they're called memories. Some take us forward, they're called dreams.” Jeremy Irons, 1948.
The Memory System
STSS
STM
LTM
Selective Attention
Comparison
Encoding
Retrieval
Decision Making
What does this make you think?
Lets give these methods a go!
ALL: identify the features of each part of the memory system; outline methods for improving the memory
Practice
An Extension for some: Research the terms, procedural, semantic and episodic. These are not on the specification and therefore would fit into the A* territory! Back yourself!
Chaining
Chunking
Mental Rehearsal
Improving the Memory
Homework Task
Repetition of any information or skill will enable it to be remembered
Now look at the numbers again…………………………
Write the numbers out again
Fold your piece of paper over
Now write out the numbers
“It's surprising how much of memory is built around things unnoticed at the time” Barbara Kingslover, 1955
Decision making stage of Information Processing
The speed that we make decisions = Reaction Time
Break down
complex actions
into a series of simpler actions
Put them together
step by step
(in a chain)
grouping information together, in order to take up less attentional space
Fold your piece of paper over
07587
692
296
Read the numbers on the board………….
07587692296
Now write down as many of them in the correct order as you can
If I want to remember something I practice it and I remember it. If I want to forget something, I think about it so I remember it.
What
was your success like?

How

did you remember the numbers?
Why

did you get better?
use reinforcement, both positive and negative
Other Methods
give a clear demonstration
Make images clear and precise
make the activity fun or interesting
Improves the link between the STM and LTM
Link
new learning to things already learned
Tower of Power
Ready position
Split stance
Smash
Catch
Running through information, actions or events in your mind
Almost
as good as doing the real thing
07587
692296
07587
692
296
How did you do? 07587692296
The tree of learning
Word Association
Reaction Time
Movement Time
Response Time
Time from the
arrival of the stimulus
to the
start of the movement
The time from the
start of the movement
to the
end of the movement
The time from the
arrival of the stimulus
to the
end of the movement
MOST: explain how information passes through each stage of the memory system and relate this to the information processing model; use examples for methods of improving memory
SOME: evaluate the effectiveness of methods for improving memory recall
Write the numbers out again
Fold Your paper over
We are going to
work around your groups
and everyone will
ask
and
be asked
at least
one question
Socratic Questioning
What
How
Why
Each question will be based upon the

hierarchy of learning

opposite

1.
start by asking
what
e.g. what is selective attention

2.
Then how e.g.
how
is selective attention used?

3.
Then
why
e.g. why is it important?
Reaction Time
WJEC AS Physical Education
Stick Drop Test
Psychological Refractory Period
PRP
Information Processing
What do the letters stand for?
TASK 7
Improving Response Time
Mental Rehearsal
Improve Selective Attention
Practice responding
to the stimulus
Improve fitness
Anticipate
Read early movements
TASK 1:
Inductive Learning
Hicks Law
MOST: explain each stage of decision making, applying to sporting examples and the information processing model
SOME: synthesise learning so far and create a programme for developing reaction time
TASK 2:
Draw the relationship between reaction time, movement time and response time in a way that you understand
Experts: explain why you have drawn it as you have
A
B
C
D
E
F
Starter's Gun
Athlete leaves the blocks
Athlete completes 100m race
A =
Stimulus Identification (perceptual)
B =
Response Selection (translatory)
C =
Response Programming (effector)
D =
Reaction Time
E =
F =
Response Time
Movement Time
Simple or choice?
100m
Dai Becks
On your feet
You are going to put the Psychological Refractory Period into action
Present your partner with one stimulus and then with a second one almost straight after
What happens?
Did they flinch?
Why?
Presentation of a
second stimulus
will slow down the processing of information causing a
time lag
(this is the
PRP
) between the
relevant stimulus
and an
appropriate response

Example:
????
ALL: define reaction time, movement time and response time; outline the features of hick’s law and psychological refractory period; identify methods for improving each
The Sports Science Industry
What is it?
SIMPLE REACTION TIME
is relevant to a single stimulus and a single possible response

CHOICE REACTION TIME
several stimuli
are given but
only one
must be selected for response
the more choices
a person has, the
more information needs processing
, and the
longer it takes
to process the information the
slower the reaction time
this is Hick’s Law - see graph.....
Anticipation
Number of stimuli
Previous experience
Age
Gender
Limb used
Body temperature
Sensory system receiving the stimulus
TASK 3
What factors affect reaction time?
Simple reaction time
– this is the time taken between a single stimulus and one response e.g. response to a starter’s gun.

Choice reaction time

– this is the time between one of several stimuli and the response to this chosen stimulus e.g. waiting to receive a badminton serve – there are several possible responses that could be made to the stimulus of the shuttlecock.

Implications
- performers should seek to present opposition with as many stimuli as possible to slow their response.
What have you learned so far?
TASK 5.
PRP in Action
Magic Shane!
Identify why he is successful at beating defenders.
What makes him so hard to tackle?
Practical Task
Psychological Refractory Period (PRP)
What would you do?
TASK 8
a. Reaction time - time from the presentation of a stimulus to the start of the movement
b. Occur from the sound of the gun to the initial movement (or equivalent)
c. Response time - the time between the first presentation of the stimulus to the completion of the movement (reaction time plus movement time)
d. The time from the gun going off to the athlete in full running motion (or equivalent)
e. Simple, choice reaction time
f. Anticipation
g. Selective attentions
h. PRP
PAST EXAM QUESTION
Homework
For next lesson
How this all applies to the real world
EXAMPLE
S1 (1st stimulus)
would be the dummy
S2 (2nd stimulus)
would be the definite move

If the dummy (S1) had been the only stimulus
then the reaction would have been at time R1

In the meantime,
S2
has happened, but the performer cannot begin his / her response to this until the full reaction
R1
has been processed by the brain

There is therefore a period of time
(the PRP)
after
S2
but before the time break to R2 can begin
A person who can do a
multiple dummy / shimmy
(any welsh rugby player) can leave opposition with no time to react and hence miss a tackle
TASK 4
Starter
Note your thoughts on your hand out
A baseball is thrown
60 1/2 feet
from the pitcher to the plate. It travels at
100mph
meaning that it covers
146.7 feet
every second and arrives at the batter in
0.142 seconds
. The average reaction time for human's is
0.215 seconds
.
How is this possible? Include as much detail as possible in your description.....
The Memory
ALL: identify the features of each part of the memory system; outline methods for improving the memory
MOST: explain how information passes through each stage of the memory system and relate this to the information processing model; use examples for methods of improving memory
SOME: evaluate the effectiveness of methods for improving memory recall
Please get out your hand out from last lesson
You had
3 exam questions
to complete for homework
Please compare your answers and
WRITE
a comment suggesting a good thing your partner has included
Good afternoon all
Starter
Detection: picking up stimuli from the environment
Suitable example
Comparison: comparing the stimuli with information stored in the memory
Suitable example
Recognition: the stimulus is identified
Suitable example
1. Using examples, explain what is meant by the DCR process? (3 marks)
Selective attention is the process by which relevant information is separated from irrelevant information
(1 mark for definition)
.

It is important because it prevents information overload and allows the player to concentrate on just the relevant information. The short-term memory system can only hold five to nine items
(max 2 marks for explanation of importance).

2. What is the process of selective attention and why is it so important in sport? (3 marks)
Three from:
■ practice responding to the stimulus
■ increase the intensity of the stimulus
■ motivate the performer to increase drive and energy
■ highlight the stimulus
■ practise in front of a crowd
■ get the player to focus


3. How can a coach improve a player’s selective attention? (3 marks)
What does the image make you wonder?
What does the image make you think?
1. Short term sensory stores (STSS)
2. Short term memory (STM)
3. Long term memory (LTM)
The 3 Memory Stores
Describe your best sporting moment.
How much can you remember?
I need 4 volunteers

1: Stimuli
2: STSS
3: Workers
4: Filers

Interactive TASK
Have a go at the gaps on page 2.
Storing information in the memory
Each has
large capacity
.
Information stored for .
25- 1 sec
before its
filtered
.
Filtering takes place at
identification stage
.
Selective attention
- determines information which filters through to Short Term Memory.
The 'Short Term Sensory Store'
STSS
Has a
limited storage capacity
~
between 5 and 9 items

Information stored for
18 - 30
seconds if not rehearsed.
Sometimes called the
working memory
.
Deals with the present.

Shares information
with
LTM
by using a
‘memory trace’
Short Term Memory
STM
Using an example explain what causes information to be passed from the STM to the LTM? Explain why information needs to be then passed back from the LTM to the STM?
Memory –
TASK 1
On your sticky label note
A) things that you know from today's lesson
B) things that you did not understand

Take time to think properly
Share with others if it helps!
Summary
Well done!
See you next Time
Research using a search engine on the Internet (google)

Chaining
Chunking
Mental Rehearsal
Practice

and make notes on page 3 in the boxes!
Homework

Infinite capacity
.
Information stored for
long periods
.
Motor programmes stored.
It passes motor programmes back to the short-term memory when needed.
Long Term Memory
LTM
Rehearsed information goes from STM to LTM.
Experiences/ Programmes recalled from LTM to STM for comparison/ use.
What has been stored in your memory system?!
Association/linking
Limit information given
Starter
Teach someone to make a paper aeroplane
Follow the methods for improving memory
Reaction Time
Use the text book, Prezi and other online sources to complete TASK's 6, 7 and 8
If there are any questions please let me know!!
Full transcript