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Atoms and Elements
Transcript of Atoms and Elements
4.1 - Elements and Symbols
one or two letter abbreviations for the names of the elements
Arrangement of elements into groups with similar properties and placed in order of increasing atomic mass
4.2 The Periodic Table
The horizontal rows are periods. The vertical columns are groups.
Periods and Groups
representative or main group elements
Classifications of groups
smallest particle of an element that retains its characteristics
4.3 - The Atom
John Dalton developed the atomic theory in 1808
Every element is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
All atoms of a given element are identical to one another and different from atoms of other elements.
Atoms of two or more different elements combine to form compounds. A particular compound is always made up of the same kinds of atoms and the same number of each kind of atom.
A chemical reaction involves the rearrangement, separation, or combination of atoms. Atoms are never created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.
Parts of an Atom
Structure of the Atom
Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
Mass of Subatomic Particles
The mass of atoms is so small that chemist use the atomic mass unit. This scale is based on carbon, with 6 protons and 6 neutrons it has a mass of 12 amu.
1 amu = 1/12 the mass of carbon
4.4 - Atomic Number and Mass Number
4.5 - Isotopes and Atomic Mass
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
nuclear symbols for isotopes of C
the weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element based on abundance and mass of each isotope
4.6 - Electron Energy Levels
Electrons with similar energy are grouped into energy levels
electrons per level
Group Number and Valance Electrons
electrons in the outermost energy levels
indicates the number of valence electrons for elements in that group
Electron- Dot Diagrams
diagrams representing the valence electrons
energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from an atom in the gaseous state
Most use letters from current names, some use letters derived from Latin or Greek.
He grouped the elements according to properties and mass.
For calculating atomic mass see pg. 111