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The Digital Dilemma
Transcript of The Digital Dilemma
(Akkoyunlu & Yilmz, 2011)
Actual evidence of a natural 'Digital Disposition' is problamatic and spasmodic. The concept of a seamless transition between the personal useage and educational requirements of digital technology is a complicated transition.
•Research shows that development of ‘game changing’ digital educational pedagogy is intense and needs a level of digital competence beyond the skill level of most pre-service educators. Leading to a mismatch of expectations.
•A large gap but often unseen gap between personal and professional usage of digital technology exists.
•Pre-service educator’s that fit the stereotype of expectation in regard to the ‘digital generation’ cannot be assumed to have digital characteristics (see above).
•Research and study findings show that pre-service educator’s have either an overstated belief in ability or an openly stated lack of confidence.
•Research and study findings show that pre-service educators have issues with usage, access and competence.
(Bennett & Maton, 2010; Bennett, Maton & Kervin; 2012; Chai, Ng, Li, Hong & Koh, 2013; Duncan-Howell, 2012; Kumar & Virgil, 2011; Smith & Greene, 2013)
Negative digital practicum experiences highlight the pre-service educators lack of confidence or overstatement of self confidence in meeting stereotype of digital expectation.
•The outcome undermines the pre-service educators confidence as a digital shaper and user of digital pedagogies in their educational context.
•A lack of both modeled digital pedagogical approaches and access to technology are presented as real barriers to developing digital confidence.
(Guo, Dobson & Petina, 2008; Lei, 2009; Prensky, 2001; Prensky, 2012a; Yeung, Lim, Tay Lam-Chiang & Hui, 2012)
The Digitally Empowered Game Changer?
Digital Generation: An Unsure Stereotype.
The Digital Dilemma: Stage One .
The Digital Dilemma: Stage Two
•Contrary to the pre-service educators expectation, ITE not aware of foundation needed to rebuild confidence.
•Modelled usage of digital technology as an effective pedagogical tool was absent.
•Loss of confidence is institutionally reinforced, leading to possible long term negative outcomes.
(Alayyar, Fisser & Voogt, 2012; Gosper, Malfoy & McKensie, 2013; Gu, Zhu & Guo, 2012; Kumar & Vigil, 2011; Norsworthy, 2008; Prensky, 2012b; Robertson & Al Zahrani 2012)
The Digital Generation: A Strong Stereotype
A stereotype of digital confidence has emerged which influences firstly perceptions of Pre-Service educators confidence with digital technology and secondly a skills rather than pedagocially focused approach that many ITE's originally adopted in their course approaches.
•A member of the so called digital generation is capable of self actualised ‘empowerment’ due to different connection and saturation with digital technology .
•Digital technology has changed the way that they think, learn and communicate.
•The digital generation live parallel physical and digital lives and can seamlessly move between both.
•The stereotype of ‘digital generation’ has formed basis of key stakeholder belief in what makes a proficient 21st Century educator.
(Bennett & Maton, 2010; Bennett, Maton & Kervin; 2012, Craft, 2012; Divaharan, Lim & Tan, 2012; Geist, 2011; Guo, Dobson,. & Petrina, 2008, Lei, 2009;Yeung, Lim, Tay, Lam-Chiang & Hui, 2012; Zhou, Zhang & Li, 2011)
The Digital Dilemma
Self Empowered Actualisation
'Stereotype of Expectation' is founded on the idea that a natural "Digital Disposition' has already taken developed and a seamless transition to Educational Pedagogy and Leadership will evolve during the process of ITE (Initial Teacher Education).
Expected Outcome based on the Stereotype of Expectation is that the Digital Generation’ will enter ITE and expect to evolve with self confidence to adopt and adapt to the reality of digital pedagogy based on their own empowered foundational digital ability as participant of ‘digital generation’. The role of ITE is to provide a skills rich and technology available environment for the pre-service educator’s to connect to and evolve within. Pedagogical approaches are developed and led by the pre-service educator as they connect and adapt their technological awareness to the educational context.
(Donnison, 2009; Prensky, 2012a; Prensky, 2012b; Wilmarth, 2010)
ITE and the 'Stereotype of Expectation"
Pilot Study into the potential use of iPad Mini at
Bethlehem Tertiary Institute (BTI), Tauranga, NZ
To examine the potential of iPad Mini
use in enhancing the pre-service
educators* practicum experience
* Educator rather than teacher is held
to be more encompassing for Primary
and Early Childhood pre-service
The Reality of Digital Dilemma
Pre-service teacher looks to ITE and Associate
Teacher (AT) to provide springboard, if confidence
or skill is found to be lacking. Expectation of the
pre-service educator is that they will see 21st
century pedagogical approaches modeled and applied in both course and practicum contexts.
1. How the iPad Mini could enhance the pre-service
educators ability to reflect, relate, teach and
communicate in their educational context.
2. The impact that the use of the iPad Mini had on
pre-service educator feelings of confidence in
using digital technology as a pedagogical tool.
Two phase qualitative research project
Subject: Initial Teacher Education (ITE) Year
3 Cohort of BTI Primary and ECE students
before and during penultimate practicum
Phase One: Pre practicum cohort online
anonymous questionnaire (n=32)
Phase Two: Practicum project and post
practicum Focus Group.
Report to BTI Strategic Leadership Team (SLT)
on iPad Mini effectiveness and suitability as a
course related cost for all pre-service
Conference presentation and publication
SITE Symposium, Christchurch, 2014
TQ2U: Thinking Qualitatively, Melbourne, 2014
TEFANZ, Hamiliton, 2014
Pre-service teacher educator looks to ITE and Associate Teacher
(AT) to provide springboard,
confidence is found to be
Expectation of pre-service educator is that they
will see 21st pedagogies modeled and applied in both practicum
experience by associate and within ITE courses.
(Duncan-Howell, 2012; Kumar & Vigil, 2011)
Revert to Traditional Pedagogy
•Pre-service educator graduates as ‘Digitally Disempowered’.
•Unable or unwilling to rebuild confidence in using digital technology
as 21st Century pedagogical tool.
•Confidence loss could lead to a generation of ‘digitally
disempowered’educators expected to lead a paradigm shift but without
the confidence to do so.
•The learning requirements for 21st Century students are subsequently impoverished
The Potential Outcome
Where to from here?
1. Surveying the 2014 Year 3 Cohort in regard to their digital confidence, digital experience on the same practicum
to see if the unexpected results of the pilot study are mirrored. Then on the basis of this putting an intervention into place before their final practicum and conducting a focus group at the conclusion of the year to gauge their response in regard to confidence and competence.
2. Surveying in a longitudinal study the 2014 Year 1 Cohort to understand their expectations of digital empowerment, levels of digital confidence and competence and subsequent changes post practicum and specific intervention over the course of their three year degree to gain a better picture of trends and changes.
3. Survey all BTI teacher education staff to ascertain their levels of digital empowerment, confidence and competence to develop intervention strategies to lift this and encourage a modeled approach to digital pedagogy across course presentation and assessment.