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Interaction Design PHD: Older People as Equal Design Partners

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Helena Sustar

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Interaction Design PHD: Older People as Equal Design Partners

Background
MA in Product design 2005
Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Ljubljana, Slovenia
freelance product designer
journalist & editor
in design and architecture
interior designer
BA in Product design, 1998
illustrator
Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Ljubljana, Slovenia
PhD in Interaction design 2012
Service design
UCHD
Dr. Helena Sustar
Motivation &
Starting point
What is Creativity?
Who is Creative?
1. Preparation
2. Incubation
3. Illumination
1. 'Make it'
4. Verification
Creative output
Paper prototypes
Presentations
Questionnaire
Creative cards
2. 'Draw it'
3. Tell me
Study 1
Results
Appropriateness
Novelty
- on-line survey
- 2 independent researchers (2)
- 6 video presentations of paper prototypes (Vimeo)
- definitions for appropriateness, novelty
Factors that Block creativity
2.
Creative Output

Factors that Stimulate creativity
Designers' yellow group
Designers' red group

Device for promoting fleetness and
exercising with older people

Analogue&Digital calendar
GSP navigation system
Description
of topic
Photo of the
storyboard
Factors that
inhibit
creativity
Factors that
stimulate creativity
Graphical representation turns in topic
Total number of turns in topic
Start and finish of the topic
Number, title,
start and finish
of the topic
Column 6
Column 5
Column 4
Column 2
Column 3
Column 1
The length
of topic
Design
The very old people 75 -90 years
The active older people 55 -74 years
The postgraduate students 21 -25 years
MA project
the 'Virtual garden'
Interview
Personas
Brainstorming
R: Imagine that you are
communicating with your relatives
with the use of these gadgets?
P: I have a mobile phone.
This is a better way of communication
than through your garden.
Topics (Flexibility)
Turns (Flow)
Older people perform better, have higher flexibility and flow when they are working together with designers.
Older people's yellow group
Older people's red group
Mixed yellow group
Mixed red group
"Keep me in the picture"
Electronic teacher
Massage chair
Poincare, Wallas
Gaver, (1999)
Appropriateness
A CREATIVE USER CENTRED DESIGN PROCESS
CONDUCTED WITH MIXED GROUPS (OLDER PEOPLE
AND DESIGNERS) IS MORE APPROPRIATE FOR DESIGNING
BETTER PRODUCTS FOR OLDER PEOPLE THAN
CONDUCTING THE SAME PROCESS WITH EITHER DESIGNERS OR OLDER PEOPLE ALONE.
CAN OLDER PEOPLE BE INVOLVED AS EQUAL PARTNERS IN A CREATIVE USER CENTRED DESIGN PROCESS FOR DEVELOPING DIGITAL DEVICES?
RQ
H
The Main study
Digital devices, such as mobile phones, are typically designed for a younger market and are often hard for older people to use.
(Healy, 2003, Gregor at. al. 2002)
Older people are rarely involved in a standard product design process and if they are, it is only in focus groups at the beginning of the design process, or in usability tests at the end.
(Healy, 2003, Gregor at. al. 2002)
Development of inadequate products, which do not take account of either physical or cognitive aspects of aging.
(Healy, 2003)
Result
- including group information exchange leading to the development of more complex ideas

- conflict leading to re- evaluation and development of ideas

- possibility of viewing different options for solving problems
(Paulus, 1999:781)
- premature judgement of ideas

- negative conflict

- too much or too little similarity in background between group members (leading to lack of interest or lack of understanding)

- lack of attention by individuals to their own ideas in comparison to those produced by the group
4 stage creative process


3 creative workshops

1 facilitator + 1 assistant

4 hours








3 groups: designers
designers & older people
older people

18 participants

red group with 3 participants
yellow group with 3 participants

active older people - computer literate
(Hackney Silver Surfers)
"Magic box"
Worksheets
- What will the device do?
- When will the device be used?
- Where will the device be used?
- How will the device be used?
- Anything else?
- Group information exchange
- Positive conflict
- Viewing different options

- Stimuli from life experiences
- Stimuli from technology

- Stimuli from key questions (Worksheets)
- 'Draw it'
- 'Make it'

- Negative conflict
- Confusion
- Lack of focus
- Toilet
- Breaks
- Refreshments
45 min video from Illumination stage
main unit: topic
the smallest unit: turn
1. When older people work with designers suffered no blocks,
but they had the highest numbers of stimuli and more creative conversations than designers group.

2. Mixed groups developed the most positive conflict, discussing more different options and had lively information exchange leading to more complex ideas.

3. Older people in mixed groups shared their life experiences with designers and those were using their technology knowledge.



4. It is feasible to involve older people in the creative design of devices. The most appropriate was is involving them with designers in the creative design process.
Conclusions
Thank you!
@helenasustar
h.sustar@shu.ac.uk
academia.edu
School of Informatics, Centre for HCI Design,
City University London
A turn consisted of sentences spoken by a participant until his or her partner next spoke. Speech by one participant that contained a significant pause was segmented into two turns.
Topic based on discussion (exchanging ideas) among members of the group about a certain theme or idea.
Flexibility is producing a wide variety of ideas.
Flow is an intrinsically rewarding motivational and behavioral state in which one's experiences are optimal. Flow activities “facilitate concentration and involvement.” They enable people to achieve peak performance, by generating feedback that sustains engagement. ... Flow states are highest when one is successfully engaging in challenging activities. Flow occurs in activities with clear goals and unambiguous feedback. The experience of flow has been correlated with the production of creative products.
Flow
Topic
Turn
Starting point
Creativity

Methodology
Results
1.
Creative process

2.
Creative output

Flow (Turns)
Topic (Flexibility)
Factors that Stimulate creativity - Stimuli
Factors that Block creativity - Blocs
Novelty
Appropriateness
Content
Older People as
Equal Partners
in the Creative Design
of Digital Devices
PhD thesis
Dr. Sara Jones
Prof. Neil Maiden
Study 1
What? & Who?
H + RQ
The Main study
Preparation
Incubation

Verification
Illumination
PhD - 1
PhD - 2
I have a lot of trouble with your remote controls,' the Queen told the Sony boss over lunch. 'Too many arrows on them‘.
(Design Council)
24 Interviews
a.) Familiarization with the model
b.) User’s opinion of the model
c.) Adoption of the model as an
interaction device in a daily routine
"no universal agreement on
the definition of creativity”
(Getzels, 1975, cited in
Feldhusen and Goh, 1995)
“finding new approaches
to old problems”
(Cropley, 2001: 5)
(Bailin, 1994)
“a new and novel way of
thinking that breaks with previously established norms“
(Bohm, 1998, cited in;
Sanders, 2001: 1)
“everyone is creative”
(Norman, 2003: 9)
“we are all designers”
Sanders (2001: 1) states that creativity in people who do not apply it in a daily routine is likely to be latent and decline over the years (Dahlberg, 2007).
- Preparation
- Incubation
- Illumination
- Verification
Cultural Probes
- 1 months before workshop
- working on their own
- how people using computers
"You are a designer in a company named IDEA. IDEA have been given the task to design a device for a company called GLOBAL DIGITAL, who produce various devices, tools and products for different European countries. You have been asked to design a new digital device that will address senior citizens’ everyday needs."
Scenario
(INDEX: Award Winner 2005,
Vestergaard Frandsen, Denmark)
LifeStraw
Sustar (2011)
Topic
(Kulesza et.al., 2009:191)
(Kerne, 2004:14)
Turns
Stimuli
Blocks
Flow
Flexibility
Flexibility
(Guilford, 1959:170-174)
divergent thinking is a composition of four creative factors: fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration and it is basis of creativity.
(Guilford, 1956, 1959b, 1960, 1986 cited in Kim, 2007)
Situated creativity (S-creativity) occurs when
“a designer has an idea for a specific task,
which was novel in that particular situation.”
Novelty
(Suwa et.al., 2000: 539-567)
“Artifacts need to have some potential value, it must be useful or appropriate”.
(WordNet, 2005)
(Paulus, 1999:156)
Flow (Turns)
Topics (Flexibility)

Factors that Stimulate creativity
Factors that Block creativity
Appropriateness
Novelty
RQ
H
Evaluations
- the mock-up model designed by designers was not an optimum approach for any group of older users.

- design and the intuitive interaction with the device were not appropriate for older people.

- none of the group thought of older people as potential users.

- methods employed in the standard design process of mock-up were not the most suitable.
Results
1.
Creative Design Process

Guilford
(1968; Runco, 1999;
Cropley, 2001)
convergent thinking
Convergent thinking delivers correct answers to given questions, usually focuses on recognizing what is familiar and preserving what is already known, and therefore it does not produce novelty.
(Cropley, 2001: 32).
Divergent thinking “involves processes like shifting perspective, transforming, or producing multiple answers from the available information and thus favours production of novelty”.
(Cropley, 2001: 32)
“creative thinkers
are flexible thinkers”.
Guilford (1959: 172)
Warr and O'Neill, Torrance, Runco
Csikszentmihalyi (1996: 110)
-Person
- Process
- Press of the environment
- Product
4P
Davis (1999)
Warr and O'Neill (2005b)
Von Oech (1983)
(Sosik, 1998)
(Jones, et.al. 2008)
(Loi, 2007)
Full transcript