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Time line of IDT
Transcript of Time line of IDT
1908 Keystone view company publishes Visual Education
1910 The first catalog of instructional films is published in US
1920s-1930s Audiovisual Instruction
1923 The national Education Association (NEA) established the division of visual instruction (DVI)
magic lantern slide viewer
1923 The university of Nebraska offered college credit courses by radio.
The coalition of 1932
1940s Audiovisual Instruction used in military and industry
1947 The Division of Visual Instruction (DVI) change its name to the Department of Audio-Visual Instruction (DAVI)
wire recorder (audio storage)
1950s - 1960s Television Instruction and early-computer assisted instruction
1952 Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issues its Sixth Report and Order, reserving 242 channels for non-commercial, education use.
1966 The IBM 1500 instructional system was introduced, and its primary purpose was to implement Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).
1960 PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) was the first generalized computer assisted instruction system
1970s - 1980s Computer Assisted Instruction
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, with the introduction of microprocessor and cost reduction, it came the home computer revolution
CAI in classroom
Apple II, home computer
1990s Computer Revolution and Distance Education
1995, in American schools there was one computer for every nine students.
Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce.
1996 Jones International University was launched as the first fully online university accredited by a regional accrediting association in US.
2000s Distance Learning and Global Education
New innovations in technology continue to emerge, the media in education will continue to evolve.
1950s Programmed Instruction Movement and Behavioral Objectives
Noted for: advocacy of behaviorism and its application to all aspects of psychology and life; schedules of reinforcement; programmed learning
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999)
Noted for: contributions to the classification of educational objectives and to the theory of mastery-learning
1960s Criterion-referenced Instruction
1940s The Origins of Instructional Design, World War II
During the war a considerable amount of training materials for the military were developed based on the principles of instruction, learning, and human behavior. Tests for assessing a learner’s abilities were used to screen candidates for the training programs. After the success of military training, psychologists began to view training as a system, and developed various analysis, design, and evaluation procedures.
Robert Gagne (1916-2002)
Noted For: Conditions of learning, learning hierarchies and hierarchical analysis
In contrast to norm-referenced tests in which an individual's performance is compared to group performance, a criterion-referenced test is designed to test an individual's behavior in relation to an objective standard. It can be used to assess the learners’ entry level behavior, and to what extent learners have developed mastery through an instructional program
1970s-1980s Systematically Designing Instruction
Many instructional design theorists began to adopt an information-processing-based approach to the design of instruction. The instructional design was more systematic.
Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives
Gagne’s taxonomy of learning
Dick & Carery ID model (1978)
David Merrill's component Display Theory (CDT, 1983) classifies learning along two dimensions: content (facts, concepts, procedures, and principles) and performance (remembering, using, generalities).
1990s Performance Technology Movement
There was growing interest in constructivism, which focuses on authentic learning experience and real-world learning environment. The scope of the instructional design field began to include analysis of the causes of performance problems and non-instructional solution.
Published in 1996
Thomas F. Gilbert (1927-1995)
2000s Knowledge Management Movement
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. Knowledge management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organization.
Instructional design is about applying learning theories to ensure learning is effective, efficient and appealing by using technology. In this presentation, you will see a brief history of instructional media, instructional design and learning theory.
Learning Theory: Behaviorism
Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors
Focuses solely on observable behaviors
Learning is context-independent
Learning Theory: Cognitivism
Learning is an internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory and perception) where the educator focuses on building intelligence and cognitive development.
Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection
Social Learning Theory
Learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement.
Learning Theory: Constructivism
Emphasizes the importance of the active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves, and building new ideas or concepts based upon current knowledge and past experience.
The differences of opinion and theory in psychology indicate that the learning process is not yet understood. Neuroscience shows that the brain can be modelled not with a central processor where ‘'intelligence'’ lies, but in having perhaps 70 functional areas. Mental activity requires several areas to work together. What appear as different types of intelligence result from different combinations of well-developed functional areas.
Learning is a process by which neurons join by developing the synapses between them.
Knowledge is arranged hierarchically, with new knowledge being linked to existing neural networks
Timeline of IDT