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Cells

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on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of Cells

Metabolism
Quick Chemistry Review

A reaction that requires energy is ___________

A reaction that gives of energy is ___________

Metabolism is _____________
___________________________
Enzymes
Proteins that function as ________ that _______ the amount of _______ energy needed to make a reaction occur
Types of Cells
Prokaryotes
Cell Transport
There are two categories:

Passive: Active:
Diffusion Na-K Pump
Facilitated Diffusion Antiport
Osmosis Symport
Uniport
Endocytosis
Cell Transport
Why are some molecules limited in how they can enter a cell?
Cells
Catabolism v Anabolism
ATP
Captures energy of catabolic reactions
Can then be used to perform actions
Size Matters
Cells, like this kid, are limited by the amount of space they have to move molecules in...and out.
Prokaryotes
Cell Basics, Organelles, Transport
Finding the Cell
Robert Hooke
Used a microscope to observe different objects.
Coined the word cell when looking at cork

Saw something new? Make a theory
Cell Theory
All living things are made of cells
Cells are the basic units of an organism and perform necessary reactions for life
Arise from pre-existing cells
Eukaryotes
Microscopes
Transmission Electron (TEM)
Si/N Crystal Structure
Mitochondria .5-1.0 micrometers across
Scanning Electron
(SEM)
No Nucleus
Plasmids
Performs binary fission
Small
Plant Cells
cell wall
central vacuole
Chloroplasts
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes
Mitochondria
Both
Animal Cells
Some have cilia
Glycocalyx
centrioles
Surface Area
to Volume Ratio
Ways around this problem
For maximum absoption
-Increase SA
-Where is it used?
Cell Organelles

Cell Membrane
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Chloroplast
Golgi
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes
Lysosome
Cell Wall
Vacuole
Other Parts of a Cell
http://www.ted.com/talks/david_bolinsky_animates_a_cell.html
Cytoplasm
Cytoskeleton
Flagellum and Cilli
Cell Junctions
Cytoplasm
a fluid gel that is 70% water
serves as a medium for chemical reactions to occur
Cytoskeleton

a weblike structure made of proteins
serves as a lattice for keeping organelles in place
maintains the cell shape
Flagellum and Cillia
Flagella are larger whip-like structures
Cillia are smaller hair like structures
Both are used primarily for movement
Cell Junctions
tight junctions block movement of chemicals from cell to cell
gap junctions are protein channels that allow cell communication
adhesion junctions adhere cells to eachother
But plants have outer cell walls!
Plants communicate using plasmodesmata
Bridges in the cell walls that allow signaling
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
Cellular Currency
In order to move, grow, reproduce, fix and maintain itself and organism needs to spend ATP
http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/28733-assignment-discovery-enzyme-catalysts-video.htm
Go to pg
89
Reactants

Transition State

Products

Activation Energy
Enzymes are specific
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


Manufactures and distributes extra-cellular proteins
Covered in ribosomes which perform the manufacturing role
An extension of the
nuclear envelope
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Manufactures phospholipids and cholesterol used in _________
detoxifies toxins
The enzyme strains the bonds of the substrate to help reach transition state
ATP Facts
You have about 0.25 kg ATP all the time.
You produce nearly as much ATP as your body weighs each day.
What methods are taken to bring some of the more difficult molecules in?
What are these?
If a plant were experiencing hot, dry conditions how would it react?
Transport Methods
Cells have depleted nearly all ATP in the cell, what do they need to do?
Red blood cells have a high amount of water and NA+ inside of the cell, how should it respond?
Transport Methods
A cell needs more Ca+2 ions and the concentration inside the cell is greater than out.
A cell needs more glucose inside when the concentration outside is greater than inside.
A macrophage has found a bacterium
Transport Methods
Going against the concentration gradient
A plant cell needs to bring in carbon dioxide to perform photosynthesis
Size, Polarity, Charge, Concentration
Quiz Tuesday

Summary of
Glycolysis

and


Aerobic Respiration
The Cell Cycle

What is inside of a cell?


Can an organism grow without making more cells?

Do all organisms big and small make new cells in the same way?


Cell Cycles
Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
Prokaryote Cell Division
After growing in favorable conditions, a prokaryote will reproduce

Binary Fission: the process by which prokaryotic cells divide


The most important part of cell division is the duplication of the DNA. Bacterial DNA is referred to as a chromosome, and it is duplicated after it attaches to the cell membrane.


What is the result of of binary fission?
How quickly can a prokaryote reproduce?

E. Coli can double it's population in 20 minutes. Some bacteria can double in just under 10 minutes.

Imagine if cats reproduced that quickly.
30 minutes
later ->
Eukaryotic Cells go through four distict phases:

S
G2
M
G1

Some will enter
Go (these cells
will not continue
to grow and
reproduce)
1. M Phase or Mitosis

The division of the nucleus

2. Cytokinesis

The division of ___________
Two Separate processes of cell division:
Create a diagram with each of the steps for binary fission and mitosis/cytokinesis

-Leave a section in the middle

-You may want to give yourself more space for mitosis/cytokinesis because there is more going on

-Write a short description for each step (include prometaphase, but combine telophase)
1. Mitosis begins when...


...and ends when...


2. Cytokinesis begins when...


...and ends when...
How are plant and animal cell division different and why?




Does every cell in your body continuously divide?
Cell Cycle Regulation

-Contact inhibition

Mitosis
-DNA is doubled
-Chromosmes align
-Cell organelles are split
-Chromatids are separated
-Spindle disappears
-Nucleus contains normal number of chromosomes
-Chromsomes unwind
-Chromosomes form
-Nuclear envelope disappears
-Microtubules form spindle
-Why is does this
part of cell
growth matter?
On the other hand cells are told to grow and divide by ____________.

-When and where would your body increase growth factor?
_______ is the result when cells continue to grow despite contact.

Masses of these cells are called _________.
Cells that form cancer are different because _______.
What can cause this?
Reproduction and Life Cycles
Meiosis
Asexual vs Sexual
What is the difference?
What is asexual reproduction?

What organisms use asexual reproduction?


What are the benefits of this reproduction?




Benefits:

-it only takes one
-occurs quickly
-individuals can cover an area in a short time

Types include:

-Runners
-Budding
-Binary fission
-Regeneration
-Spores
-Fragmentation


Remember this is asexual so that means all offspring are:
The downside of asexual reproduction


-No diversity


***Lack in diversity leaves organisms susceptible to disease***
What organisms use sexual reproduction?
What are the benefits of sexual reproduction?
What is sexual reproduction?
Sexual Reproduction:

One or two parents will produce gametes, which are sex cells.

These two gametes will unite during fertilization to form a ________
Benefits Hardships

-Diversity -Finding a
Mate
Where does diversity come from though?


How do we get a variety of offspring?
Mitosis makes 2 identical cells with 2 copies of each chromosome.

Meiosis creates 4 gametes with 1 copy of each chromosome
A normal cell has 2 copies of every chromosome and is referred to as __________

Gametes have only 1 copy of each chromosome so they are called __________.
N=copies
During fertilization the
chromosome number will
________ and become ______
as a normal cell.
When cells perform mitosis they end up with two identical homologous chromosomes.

When fertilization occurs the offspring will have homologous chromosomes that are unique from its parents
Genetic Recombination
-genes between both parents are randomly combined to create a new chromosome combination

Occurs in two ways:

Crossing Over


and


Independent assortment
Crossing over
During ______,
enzymes can cut
corresponding
sites on homologous
chromosomes and
switch them
Each parents starts with a set of chromosomes they inherited from their mother and father.

During meiosis these are separated and inhereted independent of each other:
So for much of the diversity we see in nature we have to thank:

Sexual Reproduction
Crossing Over
Independent Assortment
Genetic recombination!
Traits
All of our traits are passed on by our parents yet we do not look exactly like them because of how ________ and
________ work together to come up with unique combinations.

A healthy population will have lots of diversity, so when there is disease or environmental change some individuals will be adapted to survive and continue the species.


Examples of species in peril:

Cheetahs
Cavendish Banana
-Gros Michel Banana


Exam 3 Review
Photosynthesis
-Light Dependent
-Light Independent
-Types
-Importance to Nature

Cell Division
-Types
-Diversity
Chloroplast
The inside of a thykaloid disk is the ________.
Light dependent happens in the ________
Light independent happens in the ________
General Reaction

-Photosynthesis

How does it relate to respiration?
Light Dependent Reactions
-What is the purpose of them?
-What are the steps?
-What is used/produced?
-How is it used or produced?
-Where do the products go?

Light Independent Reactions
-What is the purpose?
-What are the stages?
-What is used/produced?
-Why is energy stored as glucose/starch?
Types of Photosynthesis

-Where are they found?
-Why do plants have different pathways?
-What type of plants use them?
Why is photosynthesis important?
The Eukaryote Cell Cycle
What are the phases?
What happens during each phase?

The Prokaryote Cell Cycle
-How is division
different?

Cell Division in Eukaryotes
-The steps of mitosis
-Significant happenings during each step
-Identify what each step looks like
Cell Cycle Regulation

-Growth Factors
-Cancer

Meiosis
-How does the chromosome number change throughout meiosis?

-What are the steps?

-What is the end product?

-How is this similar/different from mitosis?

-Where does crossing over occur?

-What does independent assortment mean?
Reproduction

-How does meiosis and crossing over lead to increased diversity?

-How much diversity does asexual reproduction create?

-What are some types of asexual reproduction?
Why is diversity important to a species?
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