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Transcript of Nazi Process
Final Solution August 1938: Germans authorities announced that starting on January 1, Jewish men and women who had "non-Jewish" names had to add "Israel" (men) and "Sara" (women) to their name.
They were obligated to carry around ID cards stamped with a large "J."
This would make them easily distinguishable to German authorities and police. Kristallnacht "Night of the Broken Glass"
October 1933: 17,000 Jews with a Polish Citizenship were deported from Germany. Yet, they have lived in Germany for several years.
The Polish Government refused to accept these people, so they were placed in "relocation camps."
This was the fate of 17 year old Polish Jew, Hershel Grynszpan's family.
Grynszpan was angry at the German government for what they did. He killed German diplomat, Ernst Von Rath.
Joseph Goebbels, Chief of propaganda, launched an attack on Jews on November 6, 1938.
250 synagogs were burned and 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed. The Nazis came to power in 1933
Antisemitism (discrimination/hostility towards Jews) increased
April 1933: Nation-wide boycott of Jewish businesses
September 1935: Nuremberg Laws installed
Other groups targeted by the Nazis included democrats, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Gypsies, handicapped/mentally impaired, along with other undesirables. Nuremberg Laws:
1. Marriages between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent this law.
Jews may not employ in their households female subjects of the state of German or related blood who are under 45 years old.
1. Any person who violates the prohibition under Article 1 will be punished with a prison sentence.
2. A male who violates the prohibition under Article 2 will be punished with a jail term or a prison sentence." Final Solution Face-to-face killing became psychologically overwhelming
Nazi's thought about sending Jews to Madagascar, but the sea became hostile as the war erupted and supplies were running low.
January 20, 1942: Wannsee Conference
The Endlosung or the "Final Solution" was discussed. Auschwitz Identification 13-17405 18372 01293 Herman Goering Himmler's Message to Nazi Officials
"...From December 31, 1942, no persons of Jewish origin may remain within the Government-General, unless they are in collection camps in Warsaw, Cracow, Czestochowa, Radom, and Lublin. All other work on which Jewish labor is employed must be finished by that date, or, in the event that this is not possible, it must be transferred to one of the collection camps.
These measures are required with a view to the necessary ethnic division of races and peoples for the New Order in Europe, and also in the interests of the security and cleanliness of the German Reich and its sphere of interest. Every breach of this regulation spells a danger to quiet and order in the entire German sphere of interest, a point of application for the resistance movement and a source of moral and physical pestilence.
For all these reasons a total cleansing is necessary and therefore to be carried out..."
H. Himmler Work & Death Camps 17653 415369 15362 31-0734 42091 66823 Slavs 4.4 million killed
Serbs 500,000-1.2 million killed
Poles 3-3.5 (jewish) / 1.8-1.9 (non-Jew) million killed
Jehovah's Witnesses 2,000 killed
Homosexuals 10,000-25,000 killed
Disabled 200,000-300,000 killed
Mentally ill 70,000 killed
Gypsies approximately 220,000 killed Goal: To create a pure and dominate German society Met with top Nazi's and agreed to hold Jews responsible for Kristallnacht
He wanted to remove Jews from the economy
After Kristallnacht 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to camps.
More anti-Jewish legislation was implemented; A curfew to keep Jews of the streets between 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m. in the summer and 8:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. in the winter Einsatzgruppen June 1941, Hitler invaded the USSR
Einsatzgruppen: mobile killing squads
They were sent into towns to find and eliminate Jews in that area
They would shoot their victims then dump them into mass graves. Auschwitz Dr. Mengele Camp Liberation Bormann, Goering, Hitler, Himmler “Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: - by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord” - Adolf Hitler "...the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew. "
-Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf) June 6, 1939, while the S.S. St. Louis, with over 900 German Jewish refugees aboard, hovered off the coast of Florida.The Roosevelt administration refused to let the refugees enter the United States. “One eats the other and the Jew devours them all...” The cartoon promotes the Nazi claim that the Jews were behind World War II, having orchestrated it to destroy Nazi Germany. “Who is the Enemy?” blames Jews for destroying social order and claims that Jews want war, while the rest of the world wants peace. Auschwitz II- Largest Section
-Included sections of men, women, a family camp, and Roma Gypsies The largest camp in Poland
Made up of three main areas
Auschwitz I- Main camp
- Had one crematorium and one gas chamber
- Housed prisoners (men) used for labor Auschwitz III- Strictly a labor camp
-Factory that manufacture synthetic rubber and fuel Nazis established 20,000 camps Camps of Labor - Factory workers
-Manual labor (digging)
-Work at the crematoriums Death camps- Gas chambers
- Crematoriums 1 of 30 doctors at Auschwitz Experimented on Jews or Gypsies with strange genetic features (twins, different colored eyes) Used Jewish volunteered doctors to carry out most of his experiments -First camp was liberated in July 1944 -Last camp was liberated in 1945 -Many on the camps were destroyed by the Nazi's to hide the mass murder. But there was too much too hide -In Auschwitz, Soviet soldiers found thousands men's suits, more than 800,000 women's outfits, and more than 14,000 pounds of hair