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How Tourism Affects The Enviroment

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William Tyler

on 11 February 2016

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Transcript of How Tourism Affects The Enviroment

How Tourism affects the Environment
This year Yardley Court visited Box Hill. We aimed to find out how tourism effects the environment. We carried out two experiments to investigate this. Box Hill is an area of natural beauty with its panoramic views and magnificent flora. It is owned by the National Trust and attracts an estimate of 850,000 people each year. It is a major attraction for cyclists and motorcyclists looking to tackle the 224 metre hill. The hills road has also been recently resurfaced for the London 2012 olympic cyclists as it was the main hill on their route. Located in Dorking, Surrey it is rumoured that on a clear day you can see the coast of Brighton. Just 30km south west of London, the hill has an ancient box woodland on the chalk slopes. The many different species of flora and fauna bring lots of tourists, and even in the Victorian times people would take a day trip to Box Hill for the fresh air and stunning views.
Investigative of Method
Explanation of Results
Box Hill on a Map
In unimproved grassland (chalk grassland) there are forty to fifty species of grass in one metre squared of land.
At Box Hill in the improved grassland there are only five species of grass in one metre squared of land.
Box Hill
In Box Hill there is a wide range of fauna, like the Box Hill Bug (Edemic Specie) or the worlds largest slug i.e. the Ash Black Slug. Box Hill even has the UK's only tarantula, the Purseweb Spider.
Box Hill Bug
Year 8 of Yardley Court went to Box Hill to carry out certain experiments on trampling and tourism.
The first investigation we did was the trampling investigation. Our apparatus needed for this experiment was a 0.5m x 0.5m quadrat as it was a simple way to select a consistent sized section of grass that we want to examine and a metre ruler because it was easy to measure with. We also used a soil pin to push in the ground and measure with the metre ruler the depth of the soil.
I am doing two investigations on trampling and one on the environmental impact at different places at Box Hill.
For the trampling investigation I predict that the grass will be longer off the path because the grass on the path will be trampled on by the tourists who want to walk on the path. I also predict that footfall might effect the number of species on the path in a negative way because some species may not survive being trodden on. For the investigation into soil depth I predict that soil will be shallower on the path because it will be trampled on and that will cause the soil to squeezed and compacted, unlike the soil off the path which would not have been trodden on so much.
For the environmental impact experiment I predict that the most impact of tourists will be at the places closest to the car park (i.e. the visitors center) because experiments show that people don't walk that far (avg 200 meters), the visitors centre also has views, cafes and toilets. The visitors centre is a place which attracts a large number of people and is known as a honey-pot site.
Our second investigation was the environmental impact investigation at different places at Box Hill. For this investigation we used our human senses and estimated and agreed on a score of 1 to 4 depending on the impact of the tourism. We did it this way as it was the most convenient and easiest way to assess the impact, and all of our group could agree and have a more rounded result. The categories were Litter, Dog Fouling, Noise, Air Quality, Vandalism and Space. Then we added up all of those scores to make a total.
Method of investigation
Results from the Environmental Impact Survey
Results from the Trampling Investigation
Measuring the depth of the soil
Metre Ruler
Soil Pin
Our Recording sheet
Counting Species
Our group measuring
off the path
Environmental Impact Survey
Box Tree
My results show that the number of species at locations off the path along Burford Spur was consistently higher than the number of species on the path.
This was what I predicted in my hypothesis, however, I learnt that on the path there is usually more plant species because off the path is more dominated by larger species because it is better quality soil. This means that the smaller species can not get sunlight or any good soil as the large species dominate and grow over the smaller ones. As a result there are more species on the path where the small species can get the resources they need to grow and do not compete with the large species. My hypothesis, therefore, may not be accurate.
My results also proved that the soil depth is much shallower on the path. I think that this is because the path soil has been compressed by the footfall, unlike the soil off the path which has not been trampled on. The more compact the soil the fewer air pockets it contains and therefore the less permeable it is. This might make it harder for plants to grow as they need water to grow.
There was approximately the same amount of grass on the path as there was off it. This is not what I predicted in my hypothesis because I thought the footfall on the path would negatively affect the amount of grass but it did not affect it at all. The footfall on the path did, however, affect the height of the species and it is shown in my results that the plants are a lot shorter on the path than off. I predicted this correctly in my hypothesis. I predicted this because I thought that the trampling will shorten the grass.This may be because we went at the end of the summer when the path was at its shortest as the summer is the most popular season at Box Hill with the most tourists and this would cause the most footfall and that causes a decrease in height of the species.
Trampling Investigation
Environmental Impact survey
The environmental impact survey suggests that the view point is most effected by tourism. In my hypothesis I predicted that the visitors center will be most effected by tourism but this was incorrect because it actually was the view point. I think the results show this because their are no bins near the view point so it creates a lot of litter at the view point The litter collector had just come before we arrived so earlier there could of been even more litter at the view point. Vandalism also had a very high score. This maybe is because the veiwpoint has become a very popular place for young people to meet up and hang out and also the staff at the visitors centre will be able to watch out and stop any vandalism whilst there are no workers at the viewpoint to prevent vandalism.
My results show the least effected by tourism was Burford Spur. I think that the results show this because it is proven that not many tourists walk as far as Burford Spur as visitors want to stay near a cafe, toilet and veiw (loo, Veiw and Brew).
However, the visitors center and Lodge Hill scored very similary in this survey.
In conclusion my study shows that tourism does affect Box Hill but tourism is a very good industry, and it appears that the National Trust are managing it very well and keeping to their motto; 'forever for everyone'.
We were very lucky with the weather as it was a beautiful day so we could complete all of our results as accurately as possible.
If I were to make my results more objective than I would have liked to repeat my experiments at different times in the year, like after winter when the land is wet, as this would have changed the trampling investigation significantly. Even the time of day could have affected my results as there was a litter collector just before we arrived at the view point. This could have increased the view points score for the environmental impact survey. It would have also made the experiments fairer, so we would have an accurate score.
By William Tyler
I would have also liked to have used a more accurate experiment to test for the environmental impact survey, like maybe using a scientific device to test for the air quality and noise as by using our senses it was quite hard to detect air quality, especially with a blocked nose! I would also have liked to have a thorough search for litter, vandalism, dog fouling and space and count it all up and make an score out of it, instead of just having a quick look and make an approximation.
I would have also liked to have averaged all of my results to give myself a more precise result.
To help me find accurate background information I used the following resources;
My own photographs
google images
National Trust
Juniper Hall
On The Path
Off The Path
Trampling Investigation
Black Ash Slug
Purseweb Spider
Environmental Impact survey
We marked out a large grid on the path and off the path. Then using random co-ordinates we placed our quadrat at randomly selected positions. We then evaluated the percentage of grass and number of species in each of the 25 squares of the quadrat and recorded the results. We repeated the experiment 3 times to get a fair test. We then measured and recorded the soil depth at 3 locations both on and of the path.
On the path
On the path
On the path
Off the path
Off the path
Off the path
Off the Path
On the Path
Fragrant Orchid
Stemless Thistle
% cover of each plant species
Comparison of soil depth
Soil Depth /mm
% cover of each plant species
Number of plant species
Estimate of impact of tourism
Comparison of impact of tourism at each site
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