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yusuf kutlu

on 28 May 2015

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Who was Suleiman the magnificent?
and his early life
What qualities did Suleiman have to make him a leader?
What was Suleiman's impact on the legal system of the Ottoman Empire?
When did he become the sultan of the Ottoman Empire?
Suleiman's father Selim the first, passed away in the year 1520. After the death of his father Suleiman came to Istanbul (constantinople) and ascended the throne as the tenth Ottoman Sultan.

Suleiman was very young when he became the Sultan, however he was already quiet experienced in Political and Military strategies. This feat was mainly because of his success as governor, which he took at the age of 17, in the provinces of Kaffa (Theodosia), then Sarukhan (Manisa) with a brief tenure at Adrianople (now Edirne).
Suleiman was known as a great conqueror
What challenges did Suleiman face during his reign?
A) What impact did Suleiman have on expanding the territory of the Ottoman Empire
B) Provide a map showing the areas conquered during his rule
C) List the areas that he conquered using nowadays names of countries
In your opinion, for what should Suleiman be remembered ?
Create 3 inquiry questions of your own. these questions must extend on the knowledge gained from previous questions
Suleiman the magnificent was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to 1566. Suleiman was born in 6 November 1494 at Trabzon. His fathers name was Selim the first and his mothers name was Ayşe Hafsa sultan. His mother died at 1534 and his father died ad 1520. He studied science, history, literature, theology, and military tactics at the age of 7 at the schools of Topkapi Sarayi at Istanbul. He took the throne as the tenth Ottoman Sultan.
First and foremost Suleiman was extremely educated since a young age. But his main qualities was his ability to keep justice and law amongst his society. This feat gave him the nickname 'Kanuni' (lawgiver). Alongside this valuable quality his military and political excellence forced his enemies 'the west' to brand him 'the magnificent'. His love for art and poetry also made that era one of the most culturally advanced times in Ottoman history. He also spoke 5 languages: Ottoman Turkish, Arabic, Serbian, Chagatai (a dialect of Turkish language and related to Uighur), Persian and Urdu.
Suleimans impact on the legal system was so grand, the legal code he formed 'kanuns' lasted for 300 years after his death. He is known as the second Soloman (being named after king soloman who was known for his just rule) amongst the Muslim world for his justice and upringing of the Islamic law. Aside from Islamic law, he was most known for his just treatment of non-believers in the areas he conquered.
The christians who worked under the Sipahis were given rights, that ascended them from serfdom. These reforms were called the Code of Rayahs (rayah given to the names of the christians). These reforms were so successful Christian serfs would migrate to turkish lands to benefit from it.
As the Sultan as one of the grandest empires of his time Suleiman faced many challenges internally and externally. Suleiman was up against charles V, who was the king of Spain and the holy roman empire. Aside from his role as the ambassador and representative of Islam he had internal conflicts that would cripple the empire in the coming years. His marriage with Hurrem caused her to have a heavy influence on the Ottoman political body, resulting in the death of his sons including the well educated and well experienced Mustafa.
After the conquest of Serbia throught the capture of the city Belgrade in the year 1521, Suleyman started a series of conquests deep into europe. In 1522 he had conquered Rhodes. in 1529 after defeating Loius II, he set up the ottoman rule of Hungary. by 1544 he had constrolled most of modern day hungary.

His victories and expansions on land was followed by his conquests in sea. After appointing Khair Ad-din Barbarossa as admiral of the Ottoman fleet they had won the battle of Preveza in the year 1538 against the Spaniards, securing the Mediterranean under ottoman rule for 33 years.
As mentioned above Suleimans institutional and administrative reforms formed the ideal structure of the Ottoman judiciary system for the coming 300 years. His conquests and military advancements are extremely noteworthy, however, his lawfulness and charismatic leadership gave him both the names 'Lawgiver' and Magnificent'.

Also, the cultural advancements in his time, like the great architect Mimar Sinan and the great poets Firuzi and Baki contribute to the great image of Sultan Suleiman.

Finally, the most important and most noteworthy aspect of this great historical figure is the way he treated people who were of different religions and races. It is a rare sight to see people of great influence to use their power for the good of humanity rather than their selves. I believe this is his greatest quality and it is what he should mostly be remembered by.
Question 1-
Why did a great and influences individual like Sultan Suleiman be so easily manipulated by his wife?
Question 2-
How would the world today view such a leader if he had lived in this time and age?
Question 3-
Why was so important for the Sultan to maintain a different set of laws from his ancestors?

The Millet System

Jewish and Christian religious communities were allowed to govern themselves, as long as they provided taxes to the government and kept the peace in their own communities. Each community had its own Millet. This could include its own courts although in any dispute involving a Muslim, or criminal acts such as robbery and murder, the Islamic court took over.
All images are from google images and Wikipedia
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