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Science Nuclear Medicine

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nathalia torres

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of Science Nuclear Medicine

-2010, 18.7 million patients went through radionuclide examinations.
-PETS increased from 248.000 in 2001 to 1.744 million in 2010.
-Also, PETS increased from 248.000 in 2001 to 1.744 million in 2010.
-Cancer survivors is estimated to grow from 12 million to 18 million from 2008 to 2020.
-There has been a 70% increase in the use of images for diagnosis between the 2000 and 2005.
-Noninvasive procedures declined 1.4% approximately during this time. Disorder in the growth of cells, create tumors and cancerous tissues.
Treated with radio pharmaceuticals to destroy cells in the tumors.
Works by injecting antibodies that may bind to proteins and radioisotopes in the cancer and damage the cancer as they decay because f the ionizing radiation they release. Nuclear Technology in Medicine By: Gabriela Hernandez, Camila Salcedo, and Nathalia Torres Negative Effects Positive Effects High Amounts of Radiation Dependance on Reactors Other benefits of the diagnosis with nuclear energy Cancer Treatment Uses Nuclear Medicine Discovered in 1895, Roentgen, a physicist, was in a dark room and noticed a fluorescence light. It was caused by undiscovered radiations from the cathode ray tubes.
The radiation was called X-rays, X stands for unknown.
Today nuclear technology is used every day in medicine.
In 1896, Becquerel discovered radioactivity.
Then, Marie and Pierre Curie discovered natural radioactivity and radium.
Georg von Hevesy started the tracer principle. 1,437,180 were diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the same year 565,650 people died. Today nuclear medicine plays a key role in treating and diagnosis this kind of diseases.
Takes internal pictures of the body, this way tumors and diseases are detected.
Can be inhaled, injected, or taken orally; Prevent unnecessary surgeries. It consists in gamma rays, X-rays, or even light, they penetrate the tissue and the energy is used as a destructive force.
Alpha rays: treat solid tumors. Beta rays: (more penetrating) treat larger tumors. Rays come from molecules with radioactive atoms.
New nuclear technology lets physicians increase radiation while reducing dangerous effects on patients. It is helpful because it gives virtual images of every major organ
It is used in both dental and medical images
It can help identify certain breathing problems
It can also be used in identifying broken bones or fractures, arthritis or tumors
It can also determine the spread cancer - High amounts of radiation may change the structure of cells and may dangerous to the human body.
-Radioactivity in nuclear medicine is controlled.
-Destruction of cells is not completely controlled by the specialists.
- Radioactivity may not only destroy the cancer cells, but healthy tissues as well.
-Patients may become weaker.
- Iodine-131 in high doses may destroy blood making cells,
making patients need bone marrow transplant. History And how they have been solved. (Treatment) Conclusion Diagnosis Importance Diagnosis High Costs -There has to be some sort of control.
-Less diagnosis= less survival.
-The time the PET/CT lasts decrease, which made it more cost effective.
The price nuclear medicine focused on diagnosis has declined over the years. Hemophilia $$$ $$$ $$$ Is a disorder in the blood that doesn't let it coagulate.
Treated by injecting phosphorus 32 into the affected joints, and then the tissue grows back again.
A surgery to cure this disease can cost up to $200,000, while the treatment 4,000. Pediatric Oncology Diagnosis with nuclear energy is save and painless
Without nuclear energy some diagnosis will only be possible with exploratory surgery
Its more accurate than exploratory surgery
It also helps understand different process inside the body
It can also check the blood flow, lungs and kidney functions Nuclear Wastes Reliability Angioplasty Small Amount of Specialists - In the US there are only 54 accredited nuclear medicine training programs.
-In the US the nuclear medicine training programs have 143 candidates/year.
- In the US there are approximately 50 graduates a year.
-Other specialties are working with nuclear medicine to meet the needs.
-There are programs for radiologists for them to be able to handle nuclear medicine. High Amounts of Radiation in Workers -Some parts of the jobs of nuclear medicine specialists have be done manually.
-According to a study done with 60 nuclear medicine workers, they receive an approximate annual dose of 500 mSv.
-In order to reduce radiation, workers use lead shields. -After procedures involving high doses of radioactivity, patients have to be isolated.
-Lead-insulated rooms for 4-10 days.
-Until the body stops emitting dangerous radiation.
-Children have to be isolated, and cant have contact with their parents.
-This problem is trying to be solved, developing isotopes that emit beta radiation, instead of the harmful high doses of gamma radiation. Radiopharmaceuticals Inject Radiopharmaceuticals into the patient. Radiopharmaceuticals are attached to antibodies (y-shaped proteins), which attach to proteins in the cancer. Since these particles are not interested of staying together permanently, scientists develop cages and linker molecules, which bond to the antibodies. There is certain preoccupation about nuclear wast but it turns out that it might represent a solution instead of a problem.
Yttrium 90 (which comes from uranium-238 ) may be taken from radioactive wastes from production plants for production for warheads. When the radiopharmaceutical is in the cancer, a machine outside the body detects the radioactivity the tracer produces. Tracers are used to find metastasis, but they are also used in observing the blood flow and the heart (Technetium-99). Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) -PET/CT combines PET with CT.
-Pet uses C-11, N-13 and O-15 (isotopes used to find metastasis) instead of technetium-99.
-The PET/CT is currently the best device in oncological diagnosis (accuracy that ranges between 80%-90%).
-Detection of tumors.
-Image development of disease.
-Image the patients response to treatments, to give accurate medication.
-To decide if a tumor is benign or not.
-Use in cardiology and neurology is currently being studied.
-PET/CT is currently more than 65% of PET sales, but its hoped for it to become 95% in the years to come.
-It takes 30 min, 1/2 of the time PET lasts (cost effective). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) What is it made of?
-A large bore magnet.
-Coils to superimpose the magnetic fields gradients
-Radiofrequency transmitters
-A computer to reconstruct the image How does it work? Patient enters the NMR. The magnet attracts the hydrogen protons and organizes the structure of the tissues of the body towards the magnet. T1 and T2 images obtained by using different radiofrequency pulses and releasing protons. -It can create images in any orientation, unlike the CT.
-It can take images of the movement of the heart.
-New investigations show that other protons may be used:
-Sodium-23 (in heads).
-Fluorine-19. -There is also the fear for the reliability about this type of medicine.
-Approximately $100-200 million dollars are needed in between 8-10 years for medicine development. -85% of the technetium-99 used in the US and Europe is made from molybdenum-99 in two reactors (in Netherlands and Canada).
-Technetium-99 is used in 80% of all imaging procedures in the world.
-Permanent or temporary closures on these reactors have and will affect nuclear technology.
-Closure of reactor in Canada-2007.
- Isotopes in North American hospitals reduced in 80%.
-More than 50,000 medical procedures in over five weeks were canceled.
- Also 99MO comes from the dangerous uranium-235, and its radioactivity is seen as a threat by the US government.
-Physics believe it is possible to create a beam of photons to fire at 235U, and replace nuclear reactors with accelerators.
-These reactors will meet Canada's needs and 10% of North America's.
-Accelerators cost between US$50 million and $125 million, while reactors cost between $500 million and $1 billion. Is a treatment design to inflate a balloon to unclog arteries.
Tissues heal too much and cause thickening of artery walls; therapy prevents from healing too much and stops adequate blood flow.
Had been used in pigs using iridium 192 and was effective, there were some drawback in the matter of radioactivity, the injection of the treatment lasted 40 minutes, so yttrium 90 was used instead.
After the development 323 patients received the treatment last year and it only lasted 6 minutes. Arthritis Is an inflammation in the joints.
Although the treatment with radiation was effective in 100 patients, in Brigham Woman's Hospital, the treatment was too expensive and they ran out of funding .
The treatment worked by injecting dysprosium 165, and destroying the joint; it reduced the pain but the join grow back together after 3-5 years.
In a future Samarium 153 is hoped to be used, instead of yttrim 90 because it caused burns in the skin. Osteomielitis Osteomyelitis is an infection on the bone.
It causes an increasing flow in blood, so it can be localized by tracers.
It can be localized but not diagnosed so other tests are needed. Other problems -Some nuclear medicine tests can only loalise a disorder, but they cannot help the specialist tell what disorder it is.
-Other nuclear medicine tests can be used to diagnose it.

-The equipment for nuclear medicine is sometimes only present in larger cities, so there is little access.
-The number of nuclear medicine
equipments is growing.
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