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Transcript of BIM Explained
the acronym often
used to describe the term
Building Information Modelling
BIM in Practice
BIM Explained offers a simple introduction to BIM,
covering basics such as the definition and history of BIM, exapmles of software,
benefits and limitations, BIM levels and future goals.
CoBie (Construction Operations Building Information Exchange)
IFC (Industry Foundation Class)
"... A Building Information Model
(Model) is a digital representation of
physical and functional characteristics
of a facility. As such, it serves as a
shared knowledge resource for
information about a facility forming a
reliable basis for decisions during its
life cycle from inception onward"
(National BIM Standard, 2012).
National BIM Standard
defines a BIM
(Building Information Model) as...
"... Building Information Modeling
(BIM) is an intelligent model-–based
process that provides insight for
creating and managing building and
infrastructure projects faster, more
economically, and with less
Autodesk states that BIM is...
Autodesk sees BIM
as a PROCESS, whereas NBIMS views BIM solely as the MODEL. Many with experience of BIM would say it is in fact a combination of the two.
are differing opinions on what exactly BIM is defined as...
building life cycle
optimisation of schedule and cost
effective communication of information between team members
faster drafting without loss of cost and quality
Stages of BIM
"... BIM management is misunderstood by some clients who regard it as purely a technological challenge which can be simply be solved by a software purchase and training, others are intimidated by a perceived complex restructuring of management processes" (Barker, 2012).
It is a common misconception that BIM is just a software package or a 3D model, however this is not the case. BIM essentially encompasses 3 things;
the BUILDING INFORMATION MODEL
the BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING process
the BUILDING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
One of the largest costs to government is the management of their estate portfolio and the new projects they undertake. By 2016, government legislation requires the majority of service providers working on government public projects to be Level 2 BIM compliant. Barker (2012) states the government plans for BIM on public projects by 2016 has increased the industry’s drive to adopt BIM in the construction process, and the industry as a whole is acknowledging that BIM will have a positive impact. For most in the industry it will simply become a case of adapt or not keep up with the competition. This construction strategy recognises that as a direct result of the recession the industry will contract, reflecting the need for companies to adapt and work in a more efficient way.
"The problem with BIM adoption at present is that the technology is forging ahead but culture is lagging behind. The government initiative is helping but the private sector needs to recognise the need to change" (Barker, 2012)
Main Contractors don't know enough about the level of detail
required at each stage of
the construction process
The common misconception that
BIM means software
and training puts
companies off investing in BIM
Clients without a real understanding
of BIM request the use of it on projects
Level 2 BIM causing legal conflict when collaborative work and intellectual property clash
Cost to implement BIM may be off putting for micro SMEs, therefore a resistance to BIM develops
All members of a project (client, consultants, main contractor, subcontractors, facilities managers) need to be educated about how a project is going to be run and what the purpose is of utilising BIM
Software tools vary according to whether they are used for authoring, or integration;
An Integrated Work GOAL for BIM
the 2050 BIM Task Group
AutoCAD was released in 1982, and fast became one of the most popular drafting tools. Since its first release there have been many advances...
AutoCAD Timeline 1982 - 2011
"... 2.32 Government will require fully collaborative 3D BIM (with all project and asset information, documentation and data being electronic) as a minimum by 2016. A staged plan will be published with mandated milestones showing measurable progress at the end of each year" (Cabinet Office, 2011).
Level 2: This is where the Government
Construction Strategy states
BIM on public projects by 2016.
This is where we are now.
We are currently on the
precipice of Level 2, with
government goals aimed
at reaching Level 2 in
under 3 years time.
“… Level 2 requires the presentation of data in specific, separate databases integrated by using proprietry interfaces, or bespoke “middleware” by a BIM co-ordinator. Commercial data is held seperately” (Lewis, 2012).
At Level 2 BIM, focus is needed to clarify the issues surrounding intellectual property and model ownership.
“… Level 3 envisages a wholly integrated model accessed by all members of the project team” (Lewis, 2012).
This level of BIM is also referred to as "iBIM".
BIM for New Builds
BIM for Refurbishment
(This diagram indicates the transition from drafting to intelligent parametric data, which is similar to how the BIM stages evolve, to include more data.)
The AEC UK BIM Protocol Project Execution Plan provides unified guidance on implementing BIM Standards and workflows in the AEC industry, in any BIM enabled project.
Some of the areas it provides guidance on are as follows;
-Project BIM Objectives
-Key BIM Personnel
-Project Stakeholders BIM Objectives
-Project BIM Standards
-Project Specific BIM Content
BS1192: 2007 is about improving communication which can save at least 10% during construction
PAS 1192-2 (Building Information Management) provides details on how BIM should be utilised, for example, how to govern the production of construction library objects so that the same level of information is available in Archicad or Revit
PAS 1192-3 provides information on the management of data in the operations life cycle
As space and funding for new builds become more limited, refurbishment will become an increasingly popular option in the future. One option to create the existing BIM for such projects, is LASER SCANNING
Weeks (2012) describes the Steps to create a Laser Scan to BIM
-A powerful 3D laser scanner scans both the interior and exterior of the building.
-The data from the scan is captured as individual data ‘points’ which are a highly accurate representation of the building, and form a model of the building that is dimensionally and visually exact.
-The data is generated by the scanner as a ‘point cloud’ which can be imported into a CAD program such as Revit.
-It is this point cloud that is then used as a guide to create the 3D geometry.
Advantages of 3D Laser Scanning
-Point clouds can capture details to within millimetres.
-The scanner also captures site conditions, when used to take details from the exterior conditions of a building.
-Some scanners also capture photometric data, which can be used to generate 3D photos for identifying building components.
First CAD System developed...
According to Mueller (2013) Sketchpad, designed by Ivan Sutherland was the first program to interactively create complex line drawings on a computer screen.
Stanford University's Collier and Fischer develop 4D CAD.
The first project, involved the development of a 4D model to communicate the four-year construction project of the San Mateo County Health Facility. "... Due to the success of this project, Martin Fischer continued to pursue research related to 4D models, focusing on improving 4D tools and the value of 4D models in design and construction" (Stanford University, 2006).
Cabinet Office publishes the GOVERNMENT CONSTRUCTION STRATEGY detailing the use of BIM on all public projects by 2016.
Fully collaborative 3D BIM utilised on all public projects, with all project and asset information, documentation and data being electronic, as specified in the 2011 Construction Strategy. AEC industry now looking towards Level 3 BIM, "iBIM".
BIM authoring tools
BIM integration tools
programs utilised during design
programs utilised pre construction
programs utilised during construction
programs utilised during use
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
Autodesk Green Building Studio
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
Autodesk Green Building Studio
IES Solutions Virtual Environment VE-Pro
Bentley Tas Simulator
Autodesk Navisworks Manage
Solibri Model Checker
Vico Office Suite
Vela Field BIM
Glue (by Horizontal Systems)
The Construction Industry Council BIM 2050 group strive to develop a culture which enables a digitally integrated approach to positively impact our built environment.
Following the launch of the group in January 2013, among other areas, they will produce reports on Technology & Process. These reports will consist of an assessment of the current situation and a proposal for
Autodesk (2011) suggests that ultimately, BIM has not only revolutionized the drawing production process: but has also created new workflows that are fundamentally changing the way projects are designed, constructed, planned, and analysed.
The main benefits BIM provides throughout the project include
-Analysis of structural and energy performance in the design phase
-Planning, 4D sequencing, and conflict checking in the construction phase
-Component ordering during the procurement phase
-3D printing and machining in the manufacturing phase
-Facilities management knowledge and updating records of events in the use phase
With the popularity of tablets and smart phones increasing, more and more BIM MOBILE APPS
Apps for VIEWING
Apps for MODELLING
Apps for ANALYSING
Apps for DIAGRAMS
Apps for DRAWING
Autodesk 123D Catch
Autodesk (AD) (2011) BIM Curriculum: Unit 1: Modelling Basics [online]. California: AD. [Accessed 10 January 2013]. Available at: <http://bimcurriculum.autodesk.com/unit/unit-1-%E2%80%93-bim-modeling-basics>.
Autodesk (AD) (2013) Definition: BIM [online]. California: AD. [Accessed 3 January 2013]. Available at: <http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/pc/index?siteID=123112&id=14062798>.
Barker, P. (2012) Where will BIM be in Five Years Time? [online]. [Accessed 7 January 2013]. Available at <http://www.thenbs.com/topics/bim/articles/whereWillBIMBeInFiveYearsTime.asp>.
buildingSMART International Ltd (BIL) (2013) Model: Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) [online]. London: BIL. [Accessed 10 January 2013]. Available at <http://www.buildingsmart.org/standards/ifc>.
Cabinet Office (2011) Government Construction Strategy. London: Cabinet Office.
Galloway T. (2011) Mobile Apps for BIM [blog entry]. [Accessed 7 January 2013]. Available at: <http://insidethefactory.typepad.com/my_weblog/2011/09/mobile-apps-for-bim.html>.
Hurley, S. (2011) AutoCad release history [blog entry]. [Accessed 9 January 2013]. Available at: <http://autodesk.blogs.com/between_the_lines/autocad-release-history.html>.
Lewis, S. (2012) BIM who does what and when? [online]. [Accessed 7 January 2013]. Available at <http://www.building.co.uk/bim-who-does-what-and-when?/5044400.article>.
Mott MacDonald Group Limited (MMGL) (2012) Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama, UK [online]. London: MMGL. [Accessed 7 January 2013]. Available at: <http://www.mottmac.com/royalwelshcollege/>.
Mueller, M. (2013) Sketchpad in Vision and Reality of Hypertext and Graphical User Interfaces [online]. [Accessed 7 January 2013]. Available at <http://www.mprove.de/diplom/text/3.1.2_sketchpad.html>.
National Institute of Building Sciences: buildingSMART alliance (bSa) (2012) National BIM Standard US [online]. Washington: bSa. [Accessed 3 January 2013]. Available at: <http://www.buildingsmartalliance.org/index.php/nbims/>.
National Institute of Building Sciences (NBS) (2013) BIM 2050 Group Launch [online]. Newcastle upon Tyne: NBS. [Accessed 9 January 2013]. Available at: <http://www.thenbs.com/topics/BIM/articles/bim2050GroupLaunch.asp?utm_source=eNews-Weekly&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=2013-01-03>.
Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) (2012) BIM Overlay to the RIBA Outline Plan of Work [online]. London: RIBA Publishing. [Accessed 2 December 2012]. Available at: <http://www.ribabookshops.com>.
Stanford University (SU) (2006) 4D CAD Research [online]. Stanford: SU. [Accessed 9 January 2013]. Available at: <http://www.stanford.edu/group/4D/projects/projects.shtml>.
Weeks, K. (2012) Without a Trace: Creating an Existing-Conditions BIM Model for a Renovation [online]. [Accessed 6 January 2013]. Available at <http://www.architecturalevangelist.com/building-information-modeling/without-a-trace-creating-an-existing-conditions-bim-model-for-a-renovation.html>.
Difference between Tradition Approach and use of BIM
COBie – a spreadsheet data format that contains digital information about a building in as complete and as useful a form as possible.
It was ".... developed by a number of US public agencies to improve the handover process to building owner-operators. It is, typically, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, but other spreadsheet applications may be used" (Hamil, 2011).
'Data drops' relate to the information provided at each stage of the design process, and soft landings encourage communication and collaboration by the designers and constructors remaining involved with a project beyond completion to help facilities managers and clients during the initial phase of operation.
The idea of COBie is that the key information is shared in one format between the construction team at defined stages in a project. The green circles within the illustration indicate when COBie format data is needed and how the client benefits.
buildingSMART have developed a “… common data schema that makes it possible to hold and exchange data between different proprietary software applications. The data schema comprises information covering the many disciplines that contribute to a building throughout its lifecycle: from conception, through design, construction and operation to refurbishment or demolition” (buildingSMART, 2013).
Industry Foundation Classes, IFC, are the main data model standard used in the BIM process. The IFC format is registered by ISO as ISO/PAS 16739 and is soon to become an official International Standard ISO/IS 16739.
buildingSMART state the IFCs are the key to truly ‘open’ BIM. They can be used to “… exchange and share BIM data between applications developed by different software vendors without the software having to support numerous native formats” (buildingSMART, 2013).
A case study at Mott MacDonald (2012) demonstrates how BIM is adding value to projects: the early development of an interactive 3D model reduced design change risk, dramatically accelerating the design programme for Cardiff’s new landmark.
Client: Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama
Mott MacDonald: Civil, structural, building services, fire and façade engineering
Principal contractor: Willmott Dixon
Other than effective collaboration and coordination, further benefits identified from utilising BIM early on during project were;
Resolving problems efficiently and refining solutions
Mott MacDonald developed a 3D model integrating architectural, structural and building services designs. As each discipline developed and refined its own component of the project the central structural model was updated. If a beam or column was moved and it clashed with an air duct or cable run, the model alerted the team, enabling the clash to be resolved then and there.
Achieving more for less
Intelligence within the model meant that when structural alterations were made – an opening was widened or closed, for example – the design team was warned that load paths had changed. Structural analysis capability enabled the efficiency of the cantilevered roof section to be optimised. The model also automatically produced the schedule for the building’s piled foundations, recalculating the locations, diameters, lengths and cut-off heights for every pile as the structural solution evolved.
Providing clarity on cost
Running up to construction this information was used to calculate the volumes of concrete required. The model also produced a figure for the total weight of structural steel needed for the roof, saving considerable effort when it came to quantifying the materials needed.
Saving time and streamlining construction
Detailed plans, elevations and cross-sections needed for construction were generated directly from the model, saving time on the production of drawings compared to traditional computer aided design. On site 3D details taken from the model were used to explain complex areas of construction.