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On being a great mentor: Research to inform your mentoring practice
Transcript of On being a great mentor: Research to inform your mentoring practice
Laura Gail Lunsford, PhD
4. Better Best
"For Mentee #1 it was easy from the beginning because she was positive and engaged.
Mentee #2 forgot appointments and seemed disengaged from like on campus. Thus, she was much more difficult with which to build a relationship."
"mentee unsure about the advantages of a mentor relationship"
"22% need better time management"
"26% need better learning and study skills"
"71 mentors or 24.48% met 4 or more hours per semester"
"178 mentors or 61.38% met between 1 and 3 hours per semester"
"opened up a bit more and got more relaxed by the end of the spring."
"Hoenstly, neither mentee was very responsive."
"Disinterested in college; going through the motions"
"unsure about future goals"
Mentoring as a Developmental Relationship
1st Generation Student
First time mentoring Arizona Assurance Scholars?
Believe mentees have access to the needed resources to succeed in college?
Believe their financial aid (full award) relieves their worries about finances?
Believe your mentee is comfortable meeting with you?
Had good mentoring relationships?
• Psychosocial = friend, listening, role model
• Career = sponsorship, challenging assignments
Not all good or bad.
Good mentors engage in 'bad' behaviors: neglectful, inattentive, controlling.
Potential for great outcomes, no outcomes, and negative outcomes.
Behaviors in College Setting
Two kinds of career support
1. socialize to the discipline
2. academic or major knowledge
Two kinds of psychosocial
1. emotional support
- listening, being approachable
2. role modeling -
build confidence, enlarge their horizons
"she lives in Tucson so that she has a good support system in place"
"Social interaction with college friends"
Help your mentee develop a network of supporters....
Developers = Individuals who provide mentoring functions
(Higgins & Kram, 2001).
Recognize different networks are appropriate.
Characterize networks by their: 1) Diversity (how many) and 2) Intensity (how close)
**Encourage students to develop a *network* - people similar and different,
on and off campus. Ask about their support, encourage 'Information
Stages of the relationship (Kram, 1985)
getting started - surface characteristics matter.
- select a shared area of mutual interest (more than checking in)
73% - Met for coffee, lunch, or dinner
55% - Met in mentor’s office
9% - Tour of a research lab
20% - Meal off campus
13% Cultural event
9% - Went for a walk
21% - Met outside
1% - Went hiking
- help your mentee add you to their network.
Talk about how or if to stay in touch.
Give permission to move on.
Required - 2 meetings per semester.
Recommend meet once a month.
Work on projects/activities of mutual interest.
Influences relationships; equivocal results to date. BUT it is about being open to feedback. Recognize some tendencies.
Confidence - enables feedback exchange.
Less Anxious - enables better feedback exchange.
"seems to do the right thing, but is not focused earning good grades"
LEARNING GOALS. - Read Mindset by Carol Dweck
Mentors appear to influence students to move from performance (I want an 'A') to learning goals (worked hard to learn this interesting material). (Godshalk & Sosik, 2003).
Why is this important?
It isn't .... (if a person never fails.)
HOWEVER - learning goals associated with increased perseverance in the face of failure or difficulty.
Preferences for handling stress in relationships (Gormley, 2008).
Develop a model of forming relationships based on our first relationship with our primary care giver.
1/2 of students may prefer to avoid stress and perceived conflict OR appear to be quite needy (Welsh & Wanberg, 2009).
"NEVER followed through with requests for meetings."
"Never met: blew off invitations, never made their own contacts."
"never saw her. never heard back from email."
"I do not expect this student to succeed and am concerned that the failure experiences here will be more harmful than not attending college."
AVOID: Toxic mentors and mentees (Feldman, 1999)
Try to do no harm... by
1. Establishing BOUNDARIES to the relationship.
You are not their FRIEND - it is a different power relationship.
Do not DATE them. Attraction happens - resist.
2. Recognizing when it is going down hill.
Contact the Arizona Assurance staff - to connect with student and perhaps reassign him/her.
3. Checking your own assumptions and tendencies.
Asking - "How can I help you more?"
BETTER TO BEST
Connect students to the ACADEMICS at the heart of the university.
Teach EXPLORATION through asking questions.
Identify areas of SHARED values.
Engage in activity of MUTAL interest.
Recognize NEEDS in navigating unfamiliar environment.
Overlapping terms: mentor, coach, advocate, advisor.
Solution is to focus on
Shared goals and collaboration propels relationships forward (Lunsford, 2011)
lglunsfo at email.arizona.edu
Advocate a European perspective of 'developmental mentoring' where both individuals learn.
What might you learn from your mentee or learn together?
Please explain how the program works, meeting schedule, and other 'must-have' dates.
"What is a good amount of time to give to the student we are mentoring? An hour a week or on an AS-NEEDED basis?
Should we only discuss school and career with the students we are mentoring? i.e. To have good boundaries, do we draw the line at discussing personal life and family, etc?"
Methods for connecting with mentees who do not return email messages to them.
What is the expected time commitment of the mentor?
What do you wish someone had told you the first time you mentored?
Be genuine, promote reflection, value mentee goals
Crisp, G. (2009). Conceptualization and initial validation of the college student mentoring scale (CSMS). Journal of College Student Development, 50(2):177–194.Feldman, D. C. (1999). Toxic mentors or toxic protégés? A critical re-examination of dysfunctional mentoring. Human Resource Management Review, 9(3):247–278.Godshalk, V. M. and Sosik, J. J. (2003). Aiming for career success: The role of learning goal orientation in mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63:417–437.Gormley, B. (2008). An application of attachment theory: mentoring relationship dynamics and ethical concerns. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnerships in Learning & Tutoring, 16(1):45–62.Higgins, M. C. and Kram, K. E. (2001). Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: A developmental network perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 26(2):264–288.Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Scott, Foresman and Company, Glenview, Illinois.Lunsford, L. G. (2011). Psychology of mentoring: The case of talented college students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(3):474–498.Welsh, E. T. and Wanberg, C. R. (2009). Launching the post-college career: A study of mentoring antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74:257–263.