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Subject-Object Theory and Acceptance Commitment Therapy

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Linda Reptis

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of Subject-Object Theory and Acceptance Commitment Therapy

Pro's and Con's
Key Terms
The Basics of Subject Object Theory
The Basics of Subject Object Theory
Robert Kegan (Born 1946)
American Developmental Theorist
Developed theory in the early 1980's (published The Evolving Self)
Roots in Piaget's developmental stages
However, extends Piaget's theory to adults as he believes that individuals are capable of cognitive development after adolescence
Presented by Burcu, Gwen and Linda
Subject-Object Theory and Acceptance Commitment Therapy
Subject and Object defined by Micheal
Imperial subjects are needs, wishes and interests
mostly made those object
knows interest in medicine, as well as traveling
However developing into the next stage and is subject to relationship and rules (Institutional)
isn't fully settled within this stage which is currently causing problems
follows friends and effected by what his parents wants from him
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acceptance_and_commitment_therapy#cite_note-4

Blackledge, J. T., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2009). Core Processes in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. In Blackledge, J. T., Ciarrochi, J., & Deane, F. P. (Australian Academic Press). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Contemporary Theory Research and Practice. (pp 41-58).

Contemporary Psychotherapy.org,. (2012). 6 structures of psychological rigidity. Retrieved from http://contemporarypsychotherapy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/ACT-image3.png

Apart from being unsure about the future he trying to please other people.
Social influence/pressure is evident in his ideas.

Feels like his parents are pushing him to study either Law or Medicine. In a previous counselling session he has stated, " Mum and Dad can’t understand what I want and I don’t think they will listen to me about what I

He feels that all his friends are traveling overseas and working before studying,
Two Suggestions
Theme's and Troubles
1. Robert Kegan's Subject Object theory
- using the Subject Object Interview to Support and Challenge client and his perceptions to get him to the next stage of development

2. Acceptance Commitment Therapy
- Using Mindfulness Techniques and Commitment to change to achieve psychological flexibility
Client Background
Michael is 18
About to finish high school.
consistent high achiever
Isn't sure which path he should take after finishing school.
Michael does have some ideas.
He is interested in Medicine and perhaps future study in that.
At the same time, he believes he is more interested in working and traveling.
How can S-O-T Help?
According to Kegan, Michael in period of transition
To reach next stage he needs to be challenged to think Interpersonally and interpersonal thoughts need to be supported
2 categories of thoughts
By conducting a Subject Object Interview the client can reach the next stage successfully
Model Comparisons
Model Suggest
Model suggests to encourage:
thinking about why they are doing what they are (why does Michael want to travel?)
examine inner urges (What is it about travel you like? Why is traveling more important to you at this time than studying?)
Self definition (were you pushed to achieve highly or are you a high achiever?)

Model suggests to support:
structural thinking
understand values, beliefs of their society, not just individuals to place themselves within it and not to lose themselves within it (leads to self-improvement and self-identity)

To develop to a more mature stage, those which are subject need to made object.
Life understood as constant development

Sources of problems viewed as opportunities for development

Clear cut, easy to use model

Can be used for all ages

No homework is set

Lack of challenges to change behaviors (e.g. Addiction clients?)

Methods of interviewing the client very particular to SOT (counselor needs special training)

The Basics of Acceptance Commitment Therapy
Late 1980s by Steven C Hayes, Kelly G Wilson & Kirk Strosahl

Originally called comprehensive distancing

Developed within functional contextualism (pragmatic philosophy)

Based on Rational Frame Theory (RFT)

Grouped within the Third Wave of Behaviour Therapy
How can ACT help?
Teaches people to notice and accept thoughts, emotions

Belief that trying to remove negative thoughts will make client worse - reducing strength of emotion

Assumes psychological processes are often destructive & creates psychological suffering

Psychological suffering is caused by experiential avoidance, cognitive entanglement, psychological rigidity.
How can ACT help?
To clarify personal values & take action on them
Bring more vitality & meaning to their life
Increase psychological flexibility
Transition from FEAR to ACT
Aim of ACT
F (Fusion with thoughts)
E (Evaluation of experience)
A (Avoidance of experience)
R (Reason giving for your behaviour)

A (Accept reaction and be present)
C (Chose a valued direction)
T (Take action)

Teaching him to accept his anxiousness rather than to run away from it

Make him aware of the present moment using mindfulness exercise

Observe self as a transient form

Even if he frets about the future it will come to him, no need to compare himself to others

List down values that are important to him
Application of ACT to Micheal
Pro's and Con's
Living in the present moment

A model that could be apply to many situations in life

There are clear set of goals in which client work with the counselor

Client must have some insight of their own values

Client must be willing to do their homework

Not for children

ACT more structured and more directive. Teaching element.

About feelings in relation to thoughts and how it impacts behaviours

Learn behaviours to deal with strong negative future emotions.

SOT more psychoanalytic, clients make own meaning and come to own conclusions.

About social relationships as well as understanding of self.

problems directly linked to developmental stage therefore future problems will need to be supported in different ways.

Communitycounselingservices.org. Retrieved 25 April 2014, from http://www.communitycounselingservices.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=12696&cn=91

Dombeck, M. (2014). Helping People to Mature: Robert Kegan and Psychotherapy (Commentary on 'In Over Our Heads') - Psychotherapy.

Dombeck, M. (2014). Robert Kegan's Awesome Theory of Social Maturity - Child & Adolescent Development Overview. Mentalhelp.net. Retrieved 25 April 2014, from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=11433

Eriksen, K. (2008). Subject Object Theory. In K. Kraus, Lenses: Applying Lifespan Development Theories in Counselling (1st ed., pp. 119 - 162). Boston: Lahaska Press.
Harris, R. (2006). Embracing Your Demons: an Overview of Acceptance & Commitment Therapy. Psychotherapy in Australia, 12(2), 2-8.

Harris, R. (2014). Acceptance & Commitment Therapy | ACT Mindfully | Acceptance & Commitment Therapy Training with Russ Harris. Actmindfully.com.au. Retrieved 25 April 2014, from http://www.actmindfully.com.au/acceptance_&_commitment_therapy

Integral Health Resources,. (2009). Subject Object Chart. Retrieved from http://www.integralhealthresources.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/subject_object_chart_for_web.jpg

Levin, M., & Hayes, S. C. (2009). ACT, RFT and Contextual Behavioural Science. In Blackledge, J. T., Ciarrochi, J., & Deane, F. P. (Australian Academic Press). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Contemporary Theory Research and Practice. (pp. 1-40).

Neukrug, E. (2008). Development of the Person. In Theories, Practices and Trends in Human Services: An Introduction (5th ed., p. 157). California: CENGAGE Learning.
Öst, Lars-Göran (2008). Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46 (3): 296–321.

School Counsellor Blog,. (2012). School Counsellor Office. Retrieved from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/--zwwaxZ9vCk/T-4gGOuwc2I/AAAAAAAAEBE/3MmtT-eMnUk/s1600/IMG_0339.jpeg

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