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cargo cycles

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maia Yi

on 10 July 2015

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Transcript of cargo cycles

cargo / bicycles as a field of analysis
qualitative research motivated through:
the practical, daily use of bicycles as a mean of transportation
the curiosity to know more about its technical details and socio-cultural relevance
an exciting methodical challenge -> moving field
background info
qualitative research
in the field of cargo cycles
spring & summer 2012, Vienna


empirical bachelor thesis
on the Viennese
cargo cycle collective
cargo cycle
the w o r k s h o p
presentation
debate

open a discussion in English
topic: cargo cycle collective
->
has been limited to the German language till now
structure
intro
participation request
cargo / bicycle as a field of analysis
about cargo cycles
cargo cycle history
the cargo cycle collective in Vienna
reflection & discussion
in 7 steps
workshop
benefit from this gathering
share our ideas & critical opinions


empirical focus in my analysis
! lack of a deeper theoretical foundation !?
to challenge the current state



If you have comprehension questions, please ask about them immediately.
methodical, theoretical, ... criticism
please note those aspects with which your thoughts diverge
collection of critical standpoints during the reflexive & discursive workshop part
->
cargo cycle collective
cargo cycles have kept a notable economical importance in certain socio-cultural contexts, especially in cities of South, East, and Southeast Asia and Latin America.

but also in some rural cases as a mean of transportation e.g. coffee bean plantations
in Tanzania & Rwanda
literature search:
->
"development" projects!?


transport systems' studies
regional science













social sciences
technical aspects of the cargo cycles
the world of work & socio-cultural position of cargo cycle riders
researches in the field of cargo cycles
in ‘modernized’* cities these means of transportation have predominantly been pushed to the margins for several decades but have experienced a revival in some cases
->
->
Which values, approaches to life & relationships of domination are reproduced through the use & organization of cargo cycles?
What’s a cargo cycle?
Where and when have you seen cargo cycles?
defining
carrier bicycles
freight bicycles
pedicabs
cycles on which bigger and heavier loads can be carried (cf. Etzel/Smolik 2008:144)
back carrier
front carrier
(cf. Burdinski et al. 2012:6; cf. Etzel/Smolik 2008:144; cf. URL 16)
fix integrated loading spaces
stretched frames either in the back or the front part of the vehicle
Cargo Cycle Categories
bicycle similar cargo cycles

low-loading cargo cycles

cargo tricycles or pedicabs

cargo quadricycles

(two-wheelers)
(two-wheelers)
(three-wheelers)
(four-wheelers)

(cf. Loh 2012: 21ff)
Cargo Cycle Categories
bicycle similar cargo cycles

low-loading cargo cycles

cargo tricycles or pedicabs

cargo quadricycles
(two-wheelers)
(two-wheelers)
(three-wheelers)
(four-wheelers)
(cf. Loh 2012: 21ff)
Long Joane
Punschkrapferl
yuba
1990s... rickshaw or pedicab revival in cities like
cargo cycle history
clockmaker Stephan Farfler, Nuremberg around 1660 (cf. URL 2)
precursor:
Pentacycle
Centre-Cycle or
Hen and Chicken
Great Britain
1882
(cf. URL3)
time of
the penny-farthings
development of the differential and the bicycle chain

-> safety bicycle 1870s...

-> lower loading cargo cycles
mail delivery services
cargo cycles in Copenhagen, Denmark
photos taken between the 1910s & 1950s
Berlin (Germany)
Bogota (Columbia)
Juliaca (Peru)
Lodz (Poland)
London (England)
New York (USA) ...
glocalization
Viennese local postal service, 1887
(cf. Ulreich 2002:64)

production by the Styria-Fahrradwerke Johann Puch & Comp., a bicycle manufacturer in Graz, Styria, Austria, 1896
(cf. URL 4)
Cargo Tricycles
A tricycle from the bakery Tax (later Edegger-Tax) around 1900, at the crossroad Rechbauerstraße/Morellenfeldgasse in Graz (cf. URL 4).
Luggage-Tricycle, Styria, Austria (translation URL 4)
marginalization of cycles

diverging mobility and transportation strategies in regional politics

political and economical conflicts around resource dependencies
e.g. the oil crisis 1973
cycle involved environmental movements since the 1970s (cf. Loh 2012: 16f).
->
->
wide spreading motorization (1950...)
in Denmark, the Netherlands, France (Vélorution), Canada (Le Monde Á Bicyclette), the US (Critical Mass) (cf. Schuller/Wich 2010: 118)
cycle involved environmental movements kick off
“Cyclist Demonstration on City Hall Square 1970s, Copenhagen. Citizens demanding bicycle infrastructure and a return to separated cycle tracks (URL 8)“.
South and Southeast Asia’s rickshaws or hawkers have kept their importance in the economy & the transportation system (non-stop) over the century
cycles vs. 'modernization'*
->
banning rickshaws
from cities or city districts (1990s ...)
“Rickshaw-pullers take to the streets at the city's Paltan yesterday after Dhaka Metropolitan Police declared eight more roads off-limits to rickshaws. Inset, rickshaw-pullers vandalise an auto-rickshaw (Sarkar/Asif 2011).”
Jakarta (Indonesia)
Kolkata (India)
Dhaka (Bangladesh)
(cf. Deiss 2008:110f; cf. Klute 2001; cf. Sarkar/Asif 2011)
2001
2005
2011
protests
->
“In April, 2012, the Cambridge based delivery company ‘Outspoken Delivery’ was able to deliver 17,000 magazines to 430 locations in 2 days for a total cost of €800 [...]. No other motorised service provider was able to do so at a comparable cost (Ferguson 2012).”
Julian Ferguson, Communications Officer for the European Cyclists’ Federation
European Union strategies to...
reduce green-house gases (Strategy 2020)
implement sustainable technologies of transportation (Strategic Transport Technology Plan till 2050)


EU funded project:
CycleLogistics
(May 2011 - April 2014)
promotes cargo cycles as transportation strategy
(cf. Deiss 2008:111ff; cf. URL 9)
"Peter Murnaghan, South West Regional Officer for the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK (CILT), says:
‘Cycle deliveries are an exciting development for inner city distribution. They offer a more sustainable solution for collection and deliveries to customers where access is difficult for vans and lorries, because of narrow streets or parking difficulties.
‘Clearly, cycle delivery will never replace bulk movement or long distance transits, but it has a growing place in the supply chain in dense urban areas, particularly where customers are clustered in close proximity and consignments are a manageable size. The cycle delivery promoter needs to work closely with partners in the transport and logistics industry to agree how best to work to and from a hub, where bulk is broken down. But, as a component for the “last mile”, the cycle can make a promising contribution as part of a 21st century logistics solution for our urban areas’ (Basterfield 2012: 50).”
use of cargo cycles
for the last-mile

common practice in cities of
South, Southeast, East Asia and Latin America since decades
(cf. Active Transport Association 2011: 2)
different glocal interests & values around
a vehicle like the cargo cycle
“Bicicloteca [pt], (...) carries a small library through the city of São Paulo, Brazil (Padilha 2012)."
"(...) to encourage reading, especially among people who live on the streets, (...) (Padilha 2012).”
free solar-powered internet access (cf. Padilha 2012/URL 34)
cargo cycles in austria
marginalized for decades

CycleLogistic (EU funded) partner in Graz, Styria
FGM AMOR (Forschungsgesellschaft Mobilität - Austrian Mobility Research)
promoting cargo cycles in Graz (c.f. URL 35)

no comparable project running from the City Vienna (regional government) (cf. Loh 2012: 19)
->
Lastenradkollektiv
Cargo Cycle Collective
voluntary assisted-service bike shops
WUK Fahrrad.Selbsthilfe.Werkstatt (1982)
Bike Kitchen (2008)

Critical Mass (1999, 2006)
but...
bike kitchens
special cycle vendors
a cargo cycle delivery service
the cargo cycle collective
...have revived cargo cycles since at least 2008
Complete apartment households have been collectively moved by cargo cycles (2008...)

Cargo cycles in use for a mobile beneficial bar (German: Solibar) at “Rasen am Ring”
first transport experiences
nourishing grounds

cargo cycle shop and delivery service

The company can be seen as a marking process for the professionalized reimplementation of cargo cycles in Vienna.


Cargo-cycle-enthusiasts (on a rather private level) founded the Lastenradkollektiv (Cargo Cycle Collective) in January 2010

Concept:
open, donation based cargo cycle sharing system




Principles
autonomous cycle involved cargo transport
self-organized, participatory
more ecological, conscious utility of resources
donation based, anti-commercial
commons
collective organization
security and responsibility
privacy/data security
voluntary work
Heavy Pedals
(2009)
Lastenradkollektiv
(2010)
Lastenradkollektiv
internet blog
mission statement
explanations about their system’s concept
functional data

financial basis
promotions & prizes from state institutions
beneficial parties (CM)
collective’s fleet
ten cargo cycles
a tandem
nine trailers
commons
the collective's organisation
the cargo cycle collective’s role is to
take care of the vehicles
administrate the sharing system
velogistic.net

participate at political actions & reclaim the city initiatives:
Critical Mass
Rasen am Ring ...
with transportation, beneficial bar or cooking station, ...
further initiatives of the collective
Pleasant Revolution Tour

a group of musicians from northern California toured through the USA, Mexico and Europe by (cargo) cycles
invites people to print clothes with bicycle activism motives themselves
silk-screen printing work shop

silk-screen printing workshop
pedal power station cycle collective
do-it-yourself philosophy
the pedal power station bicycle has been developed to provide energy for music during open air activities via a mobile or a stationary system
pedal power station cycle collective
inspired by
further projects
cargo cycles in practice
food and cooking utensils
(bear barrels; crepe hot plate, gas canister, 20 Litre milk and 10 Kilo flour)
garbage
for gardening activities (earth, plants, stones, trees)
for wood, carton or paper
for house-moves
(washing machines, mattresses, shelves, sofas, etc.)
a filming camera_wo_man, musicians,
children or other passengers
sound systems for music
the silk-screen printing workshop
different cycle constructions are favourable for different purposes
Punschkrapferl
yuba
Long Joane
cargo cycles can replace automobiles for the transportation of a big range of goods within the last mile
(cargo) cycles even can be faster in this context

role of cargo cycles vs. bicycles
pedal powered vehicles need less space, are cleaner, less noisy and with this, saving resources in several dimensions
conflicts with the road infrastructure, traffic & with mobility conceptions
which values, approaches to life and relationships of domination are reproduced through the use and organization of cargo cycles?
study program, department of social & cultural anthropology, uni Vienna

challenge the debate
in an academic sense
in its tangible socio-cultural appearances
participat!on
exception
->
(Ulreich 2002: 64)
“The bike messenger team at Byposten messenger company (URL 5).”
“Copenhagen Bike Messenger (URL 5).”
“A "svajer" giving free rides to kids in the neighbourhood, 1942 (URL 5).”
“Copenhagen Cargo cycle Race 1950. Fagenes Fest Svajerløb 1950 (URL 6).”
Bicycle rickshaw, postcard, Ho-Chi-Minh-City former Saigon, Vietnam, 1951 (cf. Schuller/Wich 2010: 117).
“Rangoon, Birma (Dussel 1954)."
“1984 in Sosromenduran, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (Vanvugt 1984).”
“School “bus” New Dehli, India (URL 7).”
"Cycle Rickshaws, Amla Para, Dhaka, Bangladesh (Howard 2007)."
(SK Enamul Haq)
“A velotaxi in front of the Hotel Adlon. Berlin, Germany (URL 10).”
Rikshaws in Lodz, Poland (cf. URL 11)
Bogota. Bicycle taxi transporting people
from A to B (Embry 2011a).
(URL 1)
(URL 1)
(URL 1)
http://edoc.difu.de/edoc.php?id=KXIHPEWF
http://www.muenchen.ihk.de/de/standortpolitik/Anhaenge/Das-Lastenfahrrad-als-Transportmittel-fuer-staedtischen-Wirtschaftsverkehr.pdf
http://www.printsasia.com/book/calcutta-cycle-rickshaw-pullers-a-sociological-study-subir-bandyopadhyay-8185195277-9788185195278
http://www.marelibri.com/search/current.seam?maximumPrice=0.0&keywords=&firstResult=0&ISBN=&selectedDatasources=1021&quicksearch=&l=en&matchTypeList=ALL&author=&title=from+peasant+to+pedicab+driver++a+social+study+of+northeastern+thai+farmers+who+periodically+migrated+to+bangkok+and+became+pedicab+drivers&description=&minimumPrice=0.0&minimumYear=0&sorting=RELEVANCE&booksellerName=&ageFilter=ALL&keycodes=&pod=false&maximumYear=0&cid=5931746
http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=anthro_faculty_pubs
http://www.amazon.com/Rickshaws-Bangladesh-Rob-Gallagher/dp/9840511823
http://books.google.at/books/about/A_socio_economic_survey_of_rickshaw_driv.html?id=t3I-AAAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y
http://books.google.at/books/about/The_Pedicab_in_Yogyakarta.html?id=KpOFZwEACAAJ&redir_esc=y
http://www.uel-smg.org.uk/Cargo%20Bikes%20final%20report%203.pdf
“London Bicycle Rickshaw. January 28, 2012 (URL 12).”
“Juliaca City Taxi. Bicycle Taxi or Pedicab (URL 13).” Peru.
Pedicab in New York (Safronova 2011)
(Basterfield 2012: 51)
(URL 17)
“Delhi Municipal Corporation employees impounding the tricycle rickshaws of street vendors (Gupta 2008).”
Bread by bicycle Rustenburg, North West South Africa (URL __)
Coffee bean transportation (70kg à bag) in Tukuyu, Tanzania (cf. Hoefler)
“Water delivery tricycles lined up along the south side of Wuyuan Lu (...) east of Wukang Lu (...), former French Concession, Shanghai (URL 19).” China
.
“Tricycle selling china, along Wuyuan Lu (...) east of Urumuqi Lu (...), former French Concession, Shanghai (URL 20).” China.
“Styro box recycler. Changning Road / Loushanguan Road, Shanghai. May 19, 2012 (URL 21).” China.
“Mobile bicycle repair shop (URL 22).” China
“A bicycle orange seller along Longcao Lu. April 9, 2009 in Shanghai Shi, Shanghai (URL__).” China.
“A postal employee doing her job on a typical german yellow postal bicycle in Germersheim. April 30, 2011 (URL 24).”
731 Pizza Cargo Cycle “Arnhem Harbour Quai Event 2012. May 13, 2012 in Malburgen West, Arnhem, GLD, NL (URL 25).” Netherlands.
Cargo Cycle Day Nijmegen, Netherlands 2012 726 Pizza oven cargo cycle. (URL 26)
“The Sushi Bicycle Vendor (…). This refrigerated cargo bike sells sushi in the 30 degree heat at one of the beaches of Copenhagen. July 4, 2009 (URL 27).” Denmark.
“The Bikeman. Mobile bicycle repair man. Copenhagen (Colville-Andersen 2010b).” Denmark.
“(...) the “Spermbullit” (…) by a Danish sperm bank (... is) designed to serve as (a) billboard (and used) to transport sperm to fertility clinics in Copenhagen (Olsen/Ritter 2012).” Denmark.
“Lulu-Sophia in the cargo bay (…) waiting for the red light (…) in Copenhagen (…). (Colville-Andersen 2010a).” Denmark.
This photo was taken on the National Cycling Day (Landelijke Fietsdag) in Amserdam, Netherlands in May 2011 (cf. URL 28).
“Montreal Cargo Bike Delivery_2. (Colville-Andersen 2012).” Canada.
“Linden Street Brewery beer delivery (c. 2012). Oakland, California. September 15, 2012, Ironworks District, Oakland, CA, US (URL 29).
Beer bike at the Disaster Relief Trials in Portland, Oregon, USA (cf. Vanlue 2012).
“Picking up a chair with the Metrofiets. February 25, 2012, Richmond, Portland, OR, US (ULR 30).”
“Cargo bicycle drink vendor, Bogota, Columbia. (Embry 2011b).”
”Nazca to Arequipa local market, Peru. May 28, 2010 (URL 31).”
“Juliaca Street Scene, Peru (URL 32).”
“Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Colville-Andersen 2011c)”.
“Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Colville-Andersen 2011d)”.
Restaurant delivery, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (cf. Active Transport Association 2011).
Supermarket delivery, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (cf. Active Transport Association 2011).
Mattress store delivery, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (cf. Active Transport Association 2011).
"Trike (Active Transport Association: 2011)."
“Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Colville-Andersen 2011a).”
Laundry Delivery, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (cf. Colville-Andersen 2011d).
Freelancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (cf. Colville-Andersen 2011b).
Bicicloteca ridden by Robson Mendonça, Sao Paulo, Brazil. (cf. Donasci 2011)
“Bicicloteca (URL 33).”
(cf. Loh 2012: 28f)
(cf. Loh 2012: 28f)
(cf. Loh 2012: 29f; 58)
(cf. Schachner 2010:6)
(cf. Loh 2012: 13)
(tr. Loh 2012: 31ff)
(cf. Loh 2012: 35)
(cf. Lisi 2012: 10)
(cf. Gerhard 2012: 6; cf. Lisi 2012: 12, 34f)
(cf. Lisi 2012: 20ff)
(URL 37)
(cf. URL 38)
(cf. Lisi 2012: 24)
(cf. Loh 2012:44ff)
(URL 18)
(URL 18)
(URL 18)
(cf. Basterfield 2012:49f; cf. Gerhard 2012:17)
Cycle rickshaw, Dhaka, Bangladesh (cf. Sprague)
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bibliography
Caffeecooperative Lima Limited
->
bicycles
Full transcript