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Behaviourism in the

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Jennifer Cabral

on 14 May 2016

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Transcript of Behaviourism in the

Behaviourism in the
eyes of the Summer Six!

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
All Behaviour is learned from the environment.
A Persons enviromnent determines their behaviour.
Peers
Family
School
Community

Classicial and Operant Conditioning
Behaviourist Perspective
Now we have a better idea of Behaviourism, let's look to our case study...

2 Main Process
An American psychologist named John B Watson who soon became one of the strongest advocates of Behaviourism.
John B Watson
Classical Conditioing was studied
by Ivan Pavlov
A natural reaction is an stimuli
Everything from speech to emotional responses were simply patterns of stimulus and response. (Watson 1913)
Highly successful in treating fears and phobias
Operant Conditiong was studied
by B.F Skinner
ABC's of Operant Conditining
A - Antecedent Stimuli
B - Behaviour
C - Consequences
With his "behaviorism", Watson put the emphasis on external behavior of people and their reactions on given situations, rather than the internal, mental state of those people
stated that psychology should focus on the "behavior" of the individual, not their consciousness.
What is behaviourism all about?
Behaviour psychology is the study of external behaviour

Behaviour is learned from the environment

A person's environment determines their behaviour

Behaviour is a response of an organism to a stimuli

We learn new behaviour through classical or operant conditioning

Involves automatic or reflexive responses
not voluntary behaviour.

IN OTHER WORDS...........

Classical conditioning relies on responses
that are naturally made

Ivan Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus -------------------------------------> Food
(stimulus that innately elicits a response)

Unconditioned Response ------------------------------------> Salvation in
(reflexive response to an innately response to food important stimulus)


Conditioned Stimulus -------------------------------------> Seeing your
(stimulus gains value through learning) favourite restaurant


Conditioned Response -------------------------------------> Feeling hungry
(response elicited by a stimulus when you see your
whose importance depends on favourite restaurant
past learning)


REMEMBER:

Classical conditioning is more than forming an association – it is an involuntary, physiological response

Skinner (1904-1990)
Developed Operant conditioning

Interested in education

Believed that behaviour is
sustained by reinforcements or rewards, not by free will

Operant Conditioning
Involves conditioning voluntary,
controllable behaviours, not the automatic physiological responses in classical conditioning

The response comes before the stimulus
(opposite of classical conditioning)

Positive
Reinforcement

Negative
Reinforcement


Punishment
Presence of pleasant
stimulus

Absence of unpleasant
stimulus

Behaviour
Increases

Behaviour
Decreases

Presence of unpleasant
stimulus

What are the behaviours?

Temper tantrums

Crying in class

Fluency (stumbling over words,
pausing excessively)

Screaming at other boys

Where do the behaviours occur?
In class

In the hallway

Fluency- when speaking

Who might be involved
when the behaviours occur?
Other boys/
classmates
Teachers

What may happen prior to behaviour?
Others whispering bad words to him


Yelling in his ear

Brandon may have learned
to use certain behaviours such as tantrums to get what he needs or wants.

What is the function of the behaviour?
To escape- when children are whispering ”bad words” and wants this to stop

As a response to a physical or sensory experience- yelling in his ear in the hallway when he doesn't like loud noises.

Fluency in Speech
Behavioural theories would argue that stumbling over words,
pausing excessively, and, at times, rapidly repeating words or parts of words is a learned response to conditions external to Brandon.

The flow of speech is involuntarily and intermittently disrupted.

Family Influences behaviour
Father

1. Odd behaviour
2. Stickler for routine
3. lack of sense of humour

Mother
1. Emotional
Schools
New school environemnt

Lack of respnses/consequences

Social cues - misreading

Inclusive enviroment

Social skills are learned from observant
Peers
Emotional outburts
negative interaction and socialization
bullying
conflict and communication
Misplace trust system between peers intentions



Skinner: Teachers ability to decrease problem behaviours and increase positive behaviours by manipulating the environment factors.
Behaviourism by the Summer Six

Tracey
Erin
Wendy
Kat
Carmen
Jenny
Conclusion
"Man are built, not born....Give me the baby, and I'll make it climb and use its hands in constructing buildings of stone or wood.....I'll make it a thief, a gun man or a dope fiend. The possibilities of shaping in any direction are almost endless......"
John B Watson
Full transcript