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Canadian History Timeline
Transcript of Canadian History Timeline
Timeline Project Created By,
Melissa Khoo 1142 Great Law of Peace established the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Haudenosaunee nations used to be at war with each other. Skennenrahawi, the Peacemaker, passed a message from the Creator to the nations and told them to stop using war and to use consensus instead. The Great Law of Peace was then created in 1142. It is the earliest known treaties between First Nations. This treaty includes 117 articles governing the relationship between five Haudenosaunee Nations. This treaty includes the leagues of five nations which are Kanienkehaka , the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Caguya and the Seneca. Later on, the Tuscarora nation joined the confederacy and became the League of Six Nations. This treaty occurred during a solar eclipse. Samuel De Champlain was a geographer and cartographer who later became to be known as “Father of New France”. He traveled with De Monts, the head of a company, to create a new colony in North America that was funded by King Henri IV. They established a colony at Île Ste, Croix and then moved it to Port Royal (Nova Scotia) .Champlain established The Order of Good Cheer to encourage settlers to work together and ensure their survival. De Mont’s monopoly revoked, Champlain and the French had to move to an abandoned village where Stadcona once stood. Champlain was determined to create a long lasting colony and the village he found had fertile ground, an advantageous location for trade and could be defended if attacked. He named this colony Québec in 1608 which he took from the Algonquin word Kebec, meaning “where the river narrows”. Québec established a base for French colonial power in North America and the beginning of permanent French presence in North America. 1608 Champlain founds the settlement of Quebec 1663 Royal Government is introduced in Nouvelle-France Nouvelle-France was constantly under attack by the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. The trade was disrupted and France did not give a lot of support for defense in Nouvelle- France. King Louis XIV dismissed the Company of 100 Associates (the company that was made up of 100 investors that controlled the territory) and made Nouvelle-France a royal colony and was then governed by a Royal Government 1663 which includes the French Monarch. The Sovereign council represented the French Monarchs. The council was composed of an intendant, a governor, a bishop and five councillors. France was too involved in wars with Europe and did not concentrate on Nouvelle-France. This made Nouvelle-France more independent and took actions on their own as communication between them and their mother country was difficult and time consuming. 1713 Treaty of Utrecht returns HBC territory from French control back to the British. During 1701 to 1713, France and Britain was at war in the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. The tension between Britain and France erupted in North America as well. In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht was signed and ended the twelve year war between Britain and France. France had to relinquish Newfoundland, Hudson Bay and Acadia to Britain. 1763 Treaty of Paris
over to Britain The British and the French were at war in the Plains of Abraham. The French surrendered and the Articles of Capitulation was signed and Nouvelle-France was handed over to Britain. The Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Year’s War between Britain and France. Almost of all French territories which included Nouvelle-France was officially handed to the British. First Nations formed alliances or just stayed neutral. Their lands were encroached by European newcomers. 1779 North West Company (NWC) is established After Nouvelle-France was fallen, Montreal based traders ignored the Hudson Bay Company’s (HBC) charter and rules. The fur trade continued in the city but rivalries continued. In 1779 several Montreal business men created the Northwest Company (NWC). This company was established to saves costs due to the greater distance and high costs because of the expansion of the fur trade inland. The Nor’Westers refused to recognize the monopoly of HBC in Rupertsland. The Nor’Westers moved inland and built forts and traded with First Nations. The HBC did the same and competed with the NWC. 1763 Royal Proclamation The French treated First Nations as independent sovereign nations and built alliances with them by giving gifts. The British wanted to have full control of the fur trade and saw the First Nations as allies with the French. The British saw them as a problem and gave handkerchiefs that were infected with small pox to First Nation leaders. The disease spread along the Ohio River. Pontiac was an Odawa First Nation Chief. He tried to build alliances with British because his people were suffering under the British rules. Pontiac rallied First Nations and took over British forts in Ohio Valley. A peace treaty was signed with British and insisted that First Nations hunting grounds had to be protected and land should be shared. In 1763 The Royal Proclamation was formed to avoid wars between British and First Nations. It created boundary between British colonies and First Nations and decreed that any further taking of land had to be negotiated. British North Americans were not pleased. The French elites felt threatened as the French laws were gone. Few British immigrants arrived and Canadien population remained the majority. 1774 Québec Act. Sir Guy Carleton was receiving a lot of complaints from British people about the Royal Proclamation. He felt it was more important to maintain the support of Canadiens for both political and military reasons.1774 the Québec Act was passed by the British Parliament. The Québec Act revoked Royal Proclamation and extended Québec’s territory to include Ohio Valley. The act guaranteed French language rights, reinstated French property and civil laws and also made provisions to allow Roman Catholics to take roles in the colony’s governance. British living in Québec were outraged because they felt that they lived in a foreign (French) colony. 1816Battle of Seven Oaks Pemmican Proclamation made by Miles Macdonell banned the export of pemmican from the Red River. This lead to war between HBC against The Métis with NWC. The war calmed down but rivalries still continued. Governor Semple replaced Macdonell and he commanded HBC to burn Fort Gibraltar (NWC fort). Cuthbert Grant, a Métis leader, traveled with six men along the Assiniboine River in NWC canoes. Semple blocked the river. Grant and his men walked north to Seven Oaks and bumped into Semple and HBC men. Conflicts occurred and gunfight broke out. The Métis won the Seven Oaks battle in 1816. 1812 War of 1812 American General William Hull invaded Upper Canada. His army occupied Windsor, Ontario. He tried to convince the population to not oppose the invasion by using propaganda. Many residents there were loyalists (people who migrated to British North America from United States due to mistreatment). They were promised lands by BNA but did not receive any and had hard times to rebuild their lives. Hull feared that the loyalists would repel. British worried that loyalists would support Americans because they did not receive land. The Americans had supply problems and were forced to retreat to Fort Detroit. Sir Isaac Brock was the head of British Forces. He joined forces with Tecumseh, leader of Shawnee First Nation, in fear of another American attack. He promised to try to get back Ohio Valley for Tecumseh. Tecumseh and British attack Fort Detroit and succeeded. After two years of war (war of 1812), it ended in a stalement. The Treaty of Ghent 1814 was signed. British did not force the negotiations of land in Ohio Valley. After the war ended, the Rideau Canal was built, birth of British-Canadian Nations and there were great increases in population of British immigrants. 1846 Oregon Treaty establishes the 49th parallel as the United States-Canada border Both Britain and the United States had claimed Pacific Northwest and had joint control. British called the area Columbia District and the Americans called it Oregon Country. Conflicts occurred. James Polk , newly elected American president, wanted to claim Oregon Country. British did not recognize the American claim. In 1845, United States-British joint control was terminated and in 1846 the Oregon Treaty came into law. It set the United States-Canada border at the 49Th parallel. 1867 Confederation joins the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia to form the Dominion of Canada July 1, 1867 British North American colonies were pushing towards confederation because of many factors. There was political deadlock in Canada East & West, trade and financial issues, growing financial burden of building railways, growing tensions with American civil war, threat of Fenian raids and United States ended reciprocity. The Atlantic colonies were against confederation as it did not benefit their colonies and they might have little power in Ottawa. However, they changed their minds as they were scared of an American annexation. Confederation would protect them. Due to external and internal pressures, confederation was the only option. The British House of Commons passed the British North American Act. Queen Victoria signed the act into law on March 29, 1867 and agreed it would become effective on July 1st. The new nation was called “Dominion of Canada” which consisted of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The End 2013 Present day Canada Canada present today consists of ten provinces with three territories with Ottawa being the capital of the country. Canada is a federal state governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Canada is a bilingual and multicultural country with a population 35 million people.