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Who am I?

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
by

Melissa Hartley

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of Who am I?

Who am I?
Phase Two: The Elementary and
Middle School Years
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
Phase Three: Adolescence
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Phase Four: Adulthood
You might be thinking...
Nope. I know
who I am.
But, how did you get there?
Erik Erikson was a psychologist. He developed a theory of psychosocial development.
Each person passes through a series of developmental stages
At each stage, a developmental crisis is faced.
The successful resolution of each crisis impacts the individual's likelihood of resolving future crises.
Each individual faces these stages in the same order. Let's take a walk down the path of these stages of development.
Umm okay. I hope this is a short path.
Phase 1: The Preschool Years
Stage 1:
Trust vs. Mistrust
Stage 2:
Autonomy vs. Shame
Stage 3:
Initiative vs. Guilt
A loving, trusting bond must be formed with one or more caregivers.
How Old?
From birth to 12-18 months
Can I
trust the people around me?
This sounds a lot like coddling to me.
This isn't coddling. It's nurturing!
By gaining this security, infants begin to feel safe to explore the world around them.
This leads us to the next stage!
How old?
From 18 months to 3 years
I can do it myself!
Skill building, self-control, and self-confidence are developed.
If this stage is successfully completed, the child becomes more secure and confident.
This leads us to the next stage!
Potty training, eating, dressing, and toy selection are landmarks.
How old?
3 to 6 years
Look what I did!
Children begin to assert their independence, and take initiative.
Too much parental interference can lead children to believe that they are wrong.
But too little supervision can lead to chaos!
A sense of independence is valuable for children to develop at this stage, to prepare them for their next challenge: school.
Which leads us
to our next stage!
Children must gain competence to successfully navigate the worlds of home and school, including family, friends, and academics.
This stage is marked by transition. The transition to elementary school, and then to middle school, forces children to adapt their behaviors and thinking.
Children can learn new skills and develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments, but they risk failure. This is also an opportunity to discover self-motivation to accomplish goals.
Guess what? We're halfway there!
Are we living on a prayer?
This is the stage when adolescents construct an identity for themselves.
It involves becoming aware of the perspectives of others.
The first step is to explore and experiment with different roles and behaviors.
The next step is to commit to a set of values and beliefs which will provide satisfaction. Not every individual reaches this step before adulthood.
This leads us to the next stage!
The establishment of identity at this stage becomes the basis for the individual's self-concept and identity in adulthood.
Failure to transition from exploration to commitment can mean one of three things:
Moratorium
An adolescent continues to explore various identities, values, and beliefs without fully committing to any.
Foreclosure
A teenager chooses to commit to the same identity as a parent or group without exploring any others.
Diffusion
An individual does not explore or commit to any options. This is characterized by apathy.
Stage 6:
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Stage 7:
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Stage 8:
Integrity vs. Despair
In this stage, young adults seek a deep
connection
with another
person.
Failure to achieve a strong sense of identity
Fear of being overwhelmed
by another
Isolation
If successful, an intimate, loving relationship can form between people
It's not mushy gushy. It's development!
Oh no. Not the mushy gushy stuff!
Being a parent or mentor creates a
sense of
fulfillment
at this stage.
During middle adulthood, individuals express concern
for and seek to
have a positive
impact on the
next generation.
Success: Failure:
"make your mark" on the world
Feel productive and active
Find no way to contribute
Feel disconnected and uninvolved
Have I
made the world better?
This stage in late adulthood is characterized
by reflection
on one's life.
Unsuccessful:
"I've wasted my life."
Regrets:
Feelings of bitterness & despair
Successful:
Acceptance:
No regrets
Feeling of satisfaction & integrity
If this stage is completed successfully, the individual may gain a sense of wisdom.
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Life is a journey through the stages of development, from birth to old age. The path we take, determined by our choices and experiences, is what allows us discover who we are.
Remember these words:
Is that it? I'm ready for more!
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