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Social and Economic Changes

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Rasesh Shah

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Social and Economic Changes

General Andrew McNaughton said relief camps should be set up in North BC and ON
US Companies in Canada

Canadian Businesses








Job Opportunities
Social and Economic Changes
Raise of Women
Economic Boom and Crisis
National Debt
Unemployment
Impact of World War 1
Postwar Challenges
Economic Boom of the 1920s
Great Depression of the 1930s
(the end of the good times)

Workplace Problems
Women Workers
Shortage of workers during WW1
Companies Hired women to do skilled work
Unemployment
Women were expected to just quit their jobs for men
Soldiers came back from war and now need work
- Munition factories not needed
- laid off lots of workers
Economy shrank and Canada was in a recession
20% of all veterans were unemployed
British Govt. encourages British veterans to settle in other parts of British empire
Many British veterans came to Canada
Inflation
Lack of Money
Twice as expensive as 1914 to live in Canada
Made everything more expensive
Veterans had expected more from the Canadian govt.
Veterans paid very little in war
Wanted benefits from govt.
People who didn't participate in the war also didn't have money
Didn't get much from the govt.
Lump sum amount of money according to their rank and length of time in army
$35 for civilian clothing
1 year of free health care
Families of deceased soldiers were given allowances
Only completely disables veterans could get permanent disability
Only 5% of all veterans
Influenza
a.k.a. Spanish Flu
(1918-1919)
Cure/Treatment
very little known about the disease
Scientists thought it started in birds
Humans got it from pigs
Pigs got it from birds
No cure at that time
How did it get to Canada
European soldiers brought it to the war and it spread in the mud and tranches
Canadian soldiers got the flu and when returning to Canada they brought it with them
By the last 100 days the flu was already spreading across Canada
Parades and people celebrating helped spread it across Canada
Same thing happened in other countries and turned into a global pandemic
Many doctors and nurses were serving overseas
Very Large shortage of health care workers
Results
As many as 50 million people died
50,000 were Canadian
Canada's reaction
Health department took action by closing some places
Closed all theaters and other public places
Closed all schools
Discouraged people from shaking hands
Women Fighting for Change
Late 19th and early 20th century, women start fighting for rights such as:
Right to vote
Greater education
Job opportunities
Better labor laws for women
Better Health Care for women
All jobs for women were low-paying and couldn't go up the hierarchy of a company (no promotions)
All women were expected to quit working after getting married
Women were not allowed high end professions (doctor, lawyer etc.)
There were only 11 female lawyers by 1919
First female engineer: Elsie Macgill

Graduated from UofT in 1927
Council of Women of Canada
(1893-2009)
Focused on:
- improving public health
- lives of female factory workers
- immigrants
- prisoners
Started to fight in 1870s under leadership of Emily Stowe
Emily Stowe
- first Canadian female doctor
- got MD from USA because Canadian medical schools denied her
In 1900s, Nellie McClung, Henrietta Muir Edwards and Emily Murphy continued fighting
Also fought for:
- right to run for public office
- appointed senate
- be a judge
Ontario was first province to let women vote in municipal election
Women must be a widow or unmarried and must own property
By 1918 women in MB, AB, SK, BC, ON, & NS could vote in provincial elections
PM Robert Borden extended Suffrage to most women in Canada, and in 1919 women could run for parliament
Agnes Macphail was first female member of parliament
in 1921
Lots of opposition but still kept getting elected in her riding
By 1919 most women could vote but not all could be appointed for the senate or be a judge
1916, AB appointed Emily Murphy as judge (first female judge of Canada)
People made Emily Murphy a candidate for the Senate
PM Borden refused because she wasn't considered a "person"
Emily Murphy and other women made a case and took it to the supreme court where they lost
Then they took it to the Privy Court in Britain where they won the case
Lots of Economic Challenges across the world
Mainly because of:
- unemployment due to closing of munition factories
- huge national debts
- inflation
Britain owed USA $4.4 billion by 1934
Germany had a huge debt especially due to the Treaty of Versailles clause about reparations
It would've take Germany until 1984 to pay off all the debt
This lead to hyper-inflation in a lot of countries
Germany started printing bills which lowered the value of their currency
Increased the prices of all the goods

Savings became worthless really quickly
Unemployment in Canada increased in 1919
Thousands of soldiers were returning at the same time many companies were closing
Due to population there was not enough supply f food and fuel.
This increased the price of food and fuel
Ground Beef Prices:

1914: $0.10
1918: $0.39

Increased nearly 300%
Lower wages + High goods prices = decrease in stand of living
War effects on returning veterans
Many veterans were changed mentally because of the horrific experience in WW1
Many could not settle back into the civilian life
soldiers experienced:
-terrible restlessness
- indefinite expression of a vague discontent
Many suffered Shell shock
Today it is known as post-traumatic stress disorder
About 4500 Canadian soldiers had been prisoners of war
Services for returning veterans
There were not many services for these veterans
They got permanent disability only if they were completely disabled
Govt. soon took this program away due to dropping economy
By the end of 1921, most disabled veterans were unemployed
Disappointed with the govt. veterans formed groups to pressure the govt.
Formed Great War Veterans Association (GWVA)
In some cities they also protested
GWVA failed to pressure the govt
Protestors were usually sent to jail
Labor Unrest and Unions
In 1900s labor union activity increased in Canada
Many people started making/joining unions
They demanded:
- 8 hours workdays
- recognition of unions
- better wages
In 1919, union leaders met in Calgary and formed the One Big Union (OBU)
Views were very similar to communist revolutionaries in Russia
Sent out pamphlets for restructuring the society
Canada has a class system where workers were hungry and employers were happy
Supported General Strikes
Winnipeg General Strike
May 1, 1919
Reason for strike:
employers refused to negotiate wages
building-trade union
and
city metal workers
When strike not settles by May 15, Winnipeg Trades and Labor Council called a city wide strike
Citizens Committee of 1000 opposed the strike
They included:
- bankers
- politicians
- business
owners
Opposition to the strike
Fired all police officers and hired 1800 special police officers
- called the Royal North-West Mounted Police (RNWMP)
Federal Government supported the Citizens Committee ad opposed the strike
Results:
- some strikers were killed
- some were not allowed to work again
- some had to sign agreements to not join an union
Prohibition
Early 20th century, people thought alcohol caused many social problems
- people "could" improve their lives if spent less money on alcohol
Before the during WW1 alcohol was banned in several provinces including AB and ON.
Selling alcohol was illegal
In 1918, under War Measures Acted the govt. enacted Prohibition
Results:
- public was angry
- criminals become rich selling illegal alcohol
- govt lost alcohol taxes
Prohibition repealed by provincial govt. in 1921 (before the USA)
Growing
economy

European countries demanded products from Canada because they needed to recover from WW1
More jobs in the consumer good industry
- companies were finding cheaper and faster ways to produce products
- made all products cheaper and people could afford them
- assembly lines
- Ford had sold 15 000 000 model Ts world wide
- vehicle ownership in Canada was 1.9M in 1929
more electric power available across Canada
- companies switched from coal to electricity to run their factories
-by 1920, electricity production in Canada had increased a lot (almost 4 times)
Resource industries grew due to demand of raw materials
Pulp & paper industry grew because of newspaper supply in the US
Canada became a big wheat exporter

this industry grew by 250%
Trouble in the Maritimes
Industries stopped using coal
Many coal mines shut down and destroyed many jobs
Govt. increased import tariffs and railway freight rates by more than 200%.
Goods from NS cost more than goods from ON
Changing trading partners for Canada
Until 1920, Britain was Canada's main trading partner.
- as USA became stronger relations between Canada and US increased
By 1925, USA had surpassed Britain in terms of trading with Canada
USA was 58% of foreign investment while Britain was only 11%
Many people wanted more trading with USA but high tariffs were an obstacle
Farmers in the west formed the Progressive party
- supported free trade
- came 2nd in 1921 election
USA was investing in Canada by branch plants
- production in Canada of US companies
Big Car companies came to Canada (Ford, GM etc.)

Controversy on US companies in Canada
US companies were bad because they were taking business away from Canadian companies
US companies were good because they created jobs
Changing Lifestyles
Urbanization
Growing Consumerism
Buying on Credit
Factories opened near urban areas an cities were crowded with workers
Forced the city to move wider and taller
New Technology allowed cities to grow (street cars, road links etc.)
Ability to communicate longer distances helped cities grow
During boom in 1920s, Canadians had money left over after buying food and clothing
Mass advertising campaigns
demand for goods forced banks to give credits to everyone
People bought expensive things on credit and installment plans
Credit available to play the stock market and appealed to everyone
Stock Market Crash of 1929
Oct. 4, TSX lost $200M but financial experts said it will go up again
Oct 24. 400,000 stocks traded on MX and 1.2M stocks sold on NYSE
Oct 28. Value of TSX fell $1M per minute
People desperately trying to get their money out
Regional Disparities
Trouble in Maritimes and Prairies
- Wheat Price Drops
- Dust Storm
- Grasshopper Infestation
- Years of drought
Markets for fish and lumber dropped
Wheat prices:
1919: $2.37/bushel
1929: $1.05/bushel
1932: $0.70/bushel

On-to-Ottawa Trek
1930s
Young unmarried men rode freight trains across Canada looking for work

PM Bennett took his advice and began giving work to unemployed men
Majority of the work was hard manual labor (chopping trees, building roads etc.)
April, 1935
Workers staged walkouts an demanded better working conditions and higher wages

Men decided to leave the camps, hop on a train and go to Ottawa and present the case to the PM
The Regina Riots
June 14, 1935
2000 trekkers reached Regina and the govt wanted to stop them
PM Bennett arranged a meeting with the trek leaders in Ottawa
The meeting failed
July 1, 1935
Govt got the RCMP to arrest the trekkers.
A riot broke out
1935
PM Mackenzie King closed all relief camps
New Political Parties
The Communist Party
Everyone should share labor profits equally
Gained popularity in tough times
Very unsuccessful
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
(1932)
CCF roots were Western labor and farmers
Leader:
J.S. Woodsworth
- wanted to dismantle enterprise economics system
- intro socialism
- 1933, declared CCF would remove domination of one class
The Social Credit Party ("bible bill")
- AB govt should give $25 social credit every month to everyone
- if people spent money than depression would end
- successful
Leader:
William Aberhart
1935:
won most seats in AB
- internal disputes divided the party
The Union Nationale
- focused on issues related to francophones
- higher minimum wages
- provincial hydro system
-Quebec Party
- Leader:
Maurice Duplessis
- gathered rebels against Liberals and Conservatives
- 1936:
Duplessis became premier of QC
Response to American Culture Influence
During 1920s and 1930s American music and movies became popular among Canadians
Mackenzie King investigated media broadcasting in Canada

Started the CRBC
1940
90% of Canadians listened to CRBC
Started NFB which produced Canadian movies that told Canadian stories
Increased taxing on magazines which has more than 20% US content
Taxes were removed in the 1990s
Notes:
Suffrage - Right to Vote
Royal North-West Mounted Police is now the RCMP
Stock Market Abbreviations
TSX - Toronto Stock Exchange
MX - Montreal Stock Exchange
NYSE - New York Stock Exchange

CRBC - Canadian Radio Broadcasting Corporation, it is now the
CBC

Arrow Colour Code

- Tier 1
- Tier 4 & more
- Tier 3
- Tier 2
Women with families mostly worked as servants in houses or sweatshops
Person
Production Cost
less
more
1925
Canada's trading partners
1. USA
2. Britain
TSX
-200,000,000.00
Oct. 28
TSX
- 390,000,000.00
Stock Market Crash

TSX
- 590,000,000.00
Full transcript