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Transcript of Ethanol
It is an intoxicating agent
It's chemical formula is C2H5OH HOW DO WE MAKE ETHANOL? FERMENTATION DISTILLATION The alcohol made from this fermentation is ethanol and it is the alcohol used in alcoholic beverages. Step 1 Carbohydrate is "mashed" with hot water to release starch.
Liquid heated to 55°C .
Treated with malt (catalyst)
Enzyme diastase converts starch into maltose Step 2 The temperature is dropped to about 35°C.
Yeast is added.
Yeast contains the enzyme maltase which breaks up maltose into glucose & fructose. Step 3 Another enzyme from the yeast, zymase, then converts glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermented mixture now contains ethanol, water and other organic compounds
Ethanol concentration is approximately 5-15%
At this concentration, the yeast is killed
To obtain the pure ethanol and at greater concentrations of ethanol fractional distillation is used. FUN FACTS! Wines and beers produced by fermentation are coloured and flavoured by substances from the starting material or by other products of the fermentation.
Fermented brews can obtain up to 5-15% by volume of ethanol.
‘Spirits’ are made by deliberate distillation of the fermented liquid, to raise the alcohol proportion to 30-45%.
The alcoholic strength of many spirits is described by the percentage concentration of ethanol they contain.
Fermented Beverages: Wine, Beer
Distilled Beverages: Tequila, Whiskey. Rum, Gin, Vodka and Brandy USES OF ETHANOL Othniel Bell
Candice Williams There are two major industrial methods in manufacturing ethanol. HYDRATION OF ETHENE Catalytic hydration of ethene
Ethene and steam are passed over a phosphoric acid catalyst
300 C & 60 atm
Used mainly in the industry as a solvent and manufacture of pharmaceutical products FERMENTATION AND DISTILLATION It is impossible to remove all of the water from the mixture and the maximum purity obtained is approximately 95% ethanol and 5%water.
Ethanol (b.p. 78.3 C) and water(100 C) form an azeotropic mixture with a min. boiling point (78.15 C).
In distillation, the most volatile liquid distills off first. In this case, it is the azeotropic mixture that is most volatile, thus no higher conc. can be obtained.
The end product is bioethanol. AS A FUEL Gasoline additive for motor vehicles.
Octane enhancer since octane rating is higher than average gasoline.
Burns more cleanly because it contains oxygen (more complete combustion)
Reduces the emission of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide
However, food is used in the production of ethanol thus, food shortages may arise. BEVERAGES Ethanol is often called ‘drinking alcohol’ or ‘pure alcohol’ as it is the prime ingredient in alcoholic beverages.
Ethanol is the intoxicating substance in alcohol.
Concentration of alcohol is specified in percent by volume (ABV) or in proof.
~18% alcohol : wines and beers
~35% alcohol: distilled beverages- spirits, vodka, rum, whiskey and brandy. AS A SOLVENT Ethanol is low in toxicity and soluble in non-polar substances
It is used as a solvent in:
medical drugs (Laudanum)
Ethanol may also be used as a solvent in cooking, such as vodka sauce. AS A CLEANER/SANITIZER Ethanol is used in antiseptic and some antibacterial soaps and wipes.
Ethanol is effective against viruses, fungi and most bacteria
But is ineffective against bacterial spores. SOCIAL IMPACT OF ALCOHOL INDUSTRY One of the most frequently abused drugs. It is a depressant drug. SHORT TERM EFFECTS Memory Loss
Loss of inhibition
Impaired coordination LONG TERM EFFECTS Stomach ailments
Serious memory loss
Alcoholics will also notice tremendous weight gain which can cause stroke, high blood pressure, and heart attack.
Leads to heart disease and kidney failure Drinking during pregnancy may result in birth defects (brain damage, facial abnormalities etc.) ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ALCOHOL INDUSTRY Businesses and government spend more money to address the problem of alcohol abuse in society
Nations spend more money on healthcare for persons who develop alcohol related sicknesses
Under aged drinking affects children’s development, thus potentially affecting the nation’s ability to be productive in the future.
Work problems may arise, such as excessive absence,poor performance, low productivity BUT IT CAN ALSO BE POSITIVE! Provides employment opportunities and stable incomes
Significant source of public revenue to governments
For example, the Jamaican government gains financially from the production of Red Stripe beer which is also exported.
Since fermentation is one of the methods of making ethanol, opportunities are offered to source local agricultural products thereby benefiting rural farming communities
For example, the use of sugar cane in Jamaica to produce rum. ALCOHOL INDUSTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT ALCOHOL AND THE ENVIRONMENT Deforestation
Waste discarded into streams and rivers
Increased carbon dioxide pollution
By-products can be used as animal feed
Carbon dioxide can be collected and used for carbonating beer POSITIVE NEGATIVE