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Nurses Role in Disaster Preparedness

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Shelby Sutter

on 30 March 2014

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Transcript of Nurses Role in Disaster Preparedness

over 2.5 million nurses nationally
Disasters strike at any time. They can be predicted, or without warning, large-scale or local, extreme or limited. Registered nurses are considered essential responders, and will be there when called upon. -American Nurses Association
Shelby & Daniele
Monday, March 31, 2014
Blessing Rieman College of Nursing
Impact on Nursing
The Healthcare Workforce
What is a disaster?
History of Disaster Planning
Ethical, Legal & Cultural Considerations
Current Nursing Role
Human induced are places, people and property in harms way as a result of a person’s deliberate action or accidental mistake. Examples include terrorism, wildfire, nuclear events, armed conflicts, motor vehicle accident and acts of war (Baack & Alfred, 2013).

Forces of nature include tornadoes, floods, earthquakes and ice storms (Veenema, 2006).
Crimean War- Florence Nightingale work tirelessly to help the mass amount of wounded and dying soldiers (Gebbie & Qureshi, 2006).
Civil War- Clara Barton, a nurse, was inspired to organize the American Red Cross (1881).
1909- Nursing became a specific Red Cross service (Gebbie & Qureshi, 2006).
WWI- The nursing role was to comfort and care for patients during disease outbreaks while it ran its course (Gebbie & Qureshi, 2006).
WWII- The Cadet Nurse Corps
1970's- emergency departments finally become fully staffed
“Culturally, sensitivity is a core skill for nurses who respond to disasters abroad. Nurses come in contact with many people of varying nationalities, traditions, and ethnicity, all possessing their own understanding of sickness. It is for this reason that nurses, specifically those who are dealing with people experiencing a disastrous even, must be trained about the importance of sensitivity to those from cultures different from their own” (Jones, 2014, para. 3)
Rural hospitals are geographically isolated.
Rural hospitals may not include the proper education and supplies for mass casualties because of budget restraints (Baack & Alfred, 2013).
This may cause them to cut corners, become irritable and/or act irrationally.
Research has shown that a large portion of the nursing staff are concerned about childcare during times of disaster.
Utilitarianism- we want to do the greatest good to the most amount of patients
Nurses have the ethical obligation to put patients first.
Legally, there is law calling them to respond.
The ANA is continuing to work to make suggestions for Disaster Plans and creating a safe and ethical environment for everyone since future disasters are guaranteed to occur.
Team leader
must “maintain awareness of overall situation, make sure all roles are filled, and contacts outside agencies” (Kaplan, Connor, Ferranti, Holmes, & Spencer, 2012, p. 46).

Second in command
must assist other nurses as needed and manage supplies.

Human Induced & Natural
Nurses have not always played a role in emergency care.
A large concern of patients of different cultures is being accepted and understood.
“go with the flow”
Being more prepared for a disaster allows a health care facility more control over an unfortunate situation.
Disaster Preparedness
You are the charge nurse in an emergency department and must assign two staff member to cover the triage area. Which team is the most appropriate for this assignment?
A. an APN and experienced LPN
B. an experienced LPN and inexperienced RN
C. an experienced RN and inexperienced RN
D. an experienced RN and an assistant
Prioritization, Delegation and Assignment Book: Chapter 18
According to Marinelli (2013), the elements that need to be a part of a disaster plan include:
• Identification of hazards specific to the facility
• Risk assessment specific to the facility
• A robust emergency/disaster plan that address how to mitigate, prepare, respond and recover from hazards and risks specific to the facility
• An organization-wide employee training program on the disaster response plan
• Drills and exercises to test the plan
• Schedule of regular updates to the disaster plan (p. 36)
The triage staff nurse
prioritizes the severity of patient conditions and maintains safety among patients and staff. This particular nurse communicates with other team members and facilities as needed.

Bedside assistant
provide hands on patient care and remain at the patient’s side for comfort.
There are four main nursing roles during a disaster.
Whole Person Nursing/Relationship Based Care
Assess the patient physiological, anatomical, severity of the injury and any other specific considerations

During a disaster, it can be difficult to develop a strong nurse patient relationship.

Nurses need to take a moment to help calm the patient’s nerves and answer questions to the best of their ability.

taking the individual, family, and community into consideration when caring for patients
Students' Role Transition
Emergency preparedness course
being capable in recognizing different disasters such as natural or terrorist events
coordinating health care for a variety of patients from the disabled to pediatrics
participating in disaster high fidelity simulations

The best way to be prepared is to have a well-developed disaster plan that staff know how to execute.
In order for students to be well prepared, faculty must be prepared as well (Schmidt et al., 2011).
Story about disaster simulation at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia
Questions for us?

Emergency and ambulatory care nurses are among the first health care workers to encounter victims of a bioterrorist attack. List in order of priority the following actions that should be taken y the ED staff.
1. Report tot he public health department or CDC per protocol
2. Decontaminate the affected individuals in a separate area.
3. Protect the environment for the safety of personnel and non affected clients.
4. Don personal protective equipment
5. Perform triage according to protocol.
“The World Health Organization defines a disaster as any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services, on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area” (Jones, 2014, para. 1). relationship.
1. To learn the history of disaster and emergency room nursing.
2. To learn the impact disaster preparedness in nursing.
3. To consider ethical, legal and cultural needs of the patients.
4. To apply WPN and Relationship-Based Care in the community during a time of crisis.
5. To learn the transition from student to a nurse prepared for a disaster.
Baack, S., & Alfred, D. (2013). Nurses’ preparedness and perceived competence in managing disasters. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(3), 281-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12029
Gebbie, K., & Qureshi, K. (2006). A historical challenge: nurses and emergencies. Online Journal of Issues In Nursing, 11(3). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2009376804&site=nrc-live
Jones, S. A. (2014). The impact of a nurse as part of a disaster response team. Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal, 21(6), 48. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012390460&site=nrc-live
Kaplan, B. G., Connor, A., Ferranti, E. P., Holmes, L., & Spencer, L. (2012). Use of an emergency preparedness disaster simulation with undergraduate nursing students. Public Health Nursing, 29(1), 44-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.2011.00960.x
Marinelli, V. A. (2013). Prepare for disaster before disaster strikes: Risk management is about having a plan and knowing when to use it. Long-Term Living, 62(2), 34-7. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012061080&site=nrc-live
Olchin, L., & Krutz, A. (2012). Nurses as first responders in a mass casualty: Are you prepared? Journal of Trauma Nursing, 19(2), 122-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JTN.0b013e3182562984
Schmidt, C. K., Davis, J. M., Sanders, J. L., Chapman, L. A., Cisco, M. C., & Hady, A. R. (2011). Exploring nursing students’ level of preparedness for disaster response. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(6), 380-383. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011434099&site=nrc-live
Veenema, T. G. (2006). Expanding educational opportunities in disaster response and emergency preparedness for nurses. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(2), 93-99. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2009162237&site=nrc-live
Thank You!
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