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Erin Kreeger - Amazon River

APES Biome Project

Erin Kreeger

on 6 January 2011

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Transcript of Erin Kreeger - Amazon River

The Amazon River

in one second the Amazon pours more than 55 million gallons of water, into the Atlantic Ocean, which dilutes the ocean's saltiness for 100 miles from shore Physical Appearance Latitude and Longitude: 0-15 south by 45-75 west It contains more
species than the entire
Atlantic Ocean. Species Diversity Piranhas can be anywhere from 6 inches up to 18 inches.

Most live in warm, fresh water.

Piranhas are omnivores. They will eat berries from trees or any other form of meat.

Other piranhas, caimans, snakes, turtles, and birds eat piranhas. Color helps the anaconda blend into the area where it lives

This snake lives on land near the edge of the water.

Anacondas also spend some time in the water.

Anacondas are constrictors and prefer to hunt alone.

Anacondas eat large rodents, small mammals, frogs, and fish. Caiman live mostly in fresh water.

They look like logs floating in the water.

The caiman has hard scales on its body to protect it from predators.

Caimans eat fish, crabs, and shrimp. The Amazon River offers a great variety of plant and animal life. Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism The giant river turtle is the largest of all species of freshwater turtles found in the Amazon River basin.
The shell is dome-shaped but somewhat flattened to streamline the shape and help the turtle swim against river currents where necessary.
The shell is greenish brown, due to algae that live on the surface. Keystone Species A species that exerts a large, stabilizing influence throughout an ecological community, despite its relatively small numerical abundance Giant Otter Giant Otters are specially adapted for an amphibious lifestyle. They have strong claws and large webbed feet. Their hair is fine and velvety in texture and it contains a water-repellent under fur. The color of the hair is a very dark umber on top, with a unique white mark on the throat. Giant Otters like to eat fish. It hunts mainly fish who feed on kelp and seaweed fields. Without the giant otter, those populations will explode. Those fish feast on and decimate the kelp beds, which are critical habitat for spawning fish. Fish will begin to decline for lack of spawning habitat. Animal Adaptations Instead of having a dorsal fin, it has a hump on its back. It can turn its head 180 degrees since it has an unfused vertebrae. During the years it developed a long beak to get it's prey. This increased mobility helps with echolocation in the murky Amazon water. Distinctive whisker-like hairs around the mouth aid foraging for food in mud.
The water in slow-moving parts of the Amazon river system is often low in dissolved oxygen.
Some types of catfish supplement the oxygen their gills absorb by swallowing air
and breathing with their intestines.
Panaque fish have spoon-shaped teeth which they use to rasp at submerged wood. Bacteria in their guts convert plant cellulose into nutritious chemicals. The phraetobius catfish lives out of water, in the leaf litter on stream banks.
Blood vessels all over its skin mean its entire body is capable of gaseous exchange.
It has no eyes and uses touch to detect its insect prey.
The blind tubesnout lives in deep water. It uses low voltages to sense its surroundings. The glass knifefish, Gymnotus rosamaria, has the ability to send electrical advertisements to potential partners. Peru Constitutional Republic the head of state and other officials
represent the people
In 2002, Peru passed legislation to allow
ecotourism-controlled zones in
the Amazon region of southeastern Peru. Brazil Federal Republic a federation of states with a republican
form of government Under Brazilian law, much of the Amazon is
an open access resource there little incentive for squatters, farmers
or developers to use forest lands or resources
in a sustainable manner. Colombia Republic supreme power lies in a body of citizens
who elect people to represent them It has 2,000 different species of fish,
an extreme number for any given area. The Amazon river contains over 3000 rare aquatic
species including two types of river dolphins,
the giant otter, turtles and alligators. There are about 30 times more fish species in the Amazon than in all European rivers. The Water Lily is the biggest flower in the world.

It can reach 6 ft in diameter and is found in the calm parts of rivers.

They are extremely big, but are very thin and weigh very little so they can float on the water.

In the Amazon river, the calmest parts can be filled with water lilies almost creating an illusion of a solid floor.
Mutualism Most water lilies are not self-pollinators or wind-pollinated.
Giant water lily plants release a pleasant but strong scent and heat.
The strong scent and warmth is necessary to attract the beetles at night.
Once attracted, the beetles enter the flower and feed on nectar while pollen clings to them. Parasitism To find a host, the candiru tastes the water to locate a water stream that is coming from the gills of a fish.
It follows the stream to its host and inserts itself inside the gill flap.
Spines around its head pierce the scales of the fish and draws blood while anchoring it in place.
The candiru feeds on the blood by using its mouth as a slurping apparatus and while rasping the long teeth on its top jaw. Predation The black caiman is a carnivorous reptile.
Young ones eat crustaceans and insects but soon eat fish, including piranhas, catfish, and perch, which remain the primary food source for all Black caiman. Osteoglossids are carnivorous and are specialized surface feeders. They are excellent jumper - they can leap more than
6 feet from the water surface. This allows them to pick off insects and birds from overhanging branches. Food Web Food Pyramid Producers Primary
Consumers Secondary
Consumers Tertiary
Consumers Biomagnification As with many marine ecosystems, the biomagnification of mercury is a large problem. Bioaccumulation is the process by which organisms can take up contaminants more rapidly than their bodies can eliminate them. Fish appear to bind methylmercury strongly, most of it covalently
binding to protein sulfhydryl groups. This binding results
in a long half-life for elimination (about two years). This allows the mercury to move to higher trophic levels and build up to toxic levels. Ecosystem Services The Amazon river provides a cheap, reliable, and easy means for transportation and communication. It is a key source of protein,
in the form of fish. It fertilizes the surrounding
soils every flood season. It takes away the tons of human
waste and pollutants that
is dumped into the river. If the area was destroyed... food problems the area could become barron build-up of pollution Amazon Rainforest would not procure adequate nutrients Human Impact Projected changes of warmer temperatures and decreased precipitation during already dry months could create longer and more severe droughts and substantial changes in seasonality. These changes could lead to devastating impacts.
increased erosion degradation of freshwater systems loss of ecologically and agriculturally valuable soils loss of biodiversity decreased agricultural yields Clear cutting - causes an increase of runoff
into the amazon River This decreases the amount of light penetration and dissolved oxygen in the water. Most clear cuts are burned which
releases CO2 into the atmosphere

This could increase the acidity of the water Laws that protect
the Amazon River 1996 - law that forbade Amazon landowners from cutting more than 20% of the forest on their land.
However, deforestation has increased
dramatically in the past couple of years. Tree of Rivers: The Story of the Amazon by John Hemming
Smithsonian Atlas of the Amazon by Michael Goulding, Ronaldo Barthem, and Efrem Jorge Gondim Ferreira

second longest river in the world after the Nile runs from the Andes Mountains in Peru through Brazil contains more water than any other river in the world surrounded by the Amazon Rainforest Dispersion Patterns Clumped

Piranhas hunt in large groups called shoals, or packs. Because of this, they represent a clumped pattern of dispersal.

Anacondas prefer to hunt alone and stay away from others like them. Becuse of this, they represent a uniform pattern of dispersal. Random

Water lillies are not dependant on the proximaty of oter plants. The dispersal of their seeds is random, so water lilies should represent a random pattern of dispersion. Sources Competition Inter- Intra- vs vs The Amazon River Dolphin and the Giant Otter hunt similar species, competing for food sources. River plants compete for dissolved oxygen, sunlight, and nutrients found in the water.
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