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Exploring Indian Boarding Schools

A teaching resource, meant to function as both a self-guided tour and as a comprehensive visual aid in teaching about the creation and history of Indian boarding schools (1880's-1953).
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Sam D

on 11 May 2013

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Transcript of Exploring Indian Boarding Schools

Cushman Indian School, Tacoma, Wash.

February 1, 1912

Monday

5:45 A.M.Reveille.
5:55 to 6:10Setting Up Exercise & Drill.
6:12Air Beds.
6:12 to 6:45Recreation.
6:45First Call for Breakfast.
6:55Assembly. Roll Call.
7:00Breakfast.
7:30 to 7:35Care of teeth.
7:35 to 7:40Make beds.
7:40 to 7:55Police Quarters.
7:55Industrial Call.
8:00Industrial work begins. School detail at liberty. The use of this period is at pupils' discretion. The more studious at books; those inclined to athletics make use of this time for practice. Some pupils practice music lessons, etc.
8:50First School Call. Roll Call and Inspection.
9:00School.
11:30Recall. Pupils at liberty.
11:55Assembly and Roll Call.
12:00Dinner.
12:30Recreation.
12:50School and Industrial Call. Inspection.
1:00 P.M.Industrial work and School.
3:30School dismissed. School detail at liberty. Time spent in same general manner as morning detail utilizes period from 8:00 to 8:50.
4:30Industrial recall. Drill and Gymnasium classes.
5:15First Call.
5:25Assembly. Roll Call.
5:30Supper.
6:00Care of teeth.
6:10Recreation.
7:15First Call.
7:25Roll Call. Inspection.
7:30Lecture. This period varies in length. Men prominent in education or civic affairs address the pupils.
8:15Call to Quarters. Older pupils prepare lessons; intermediate children play.
8:45Tattoo. Pupils retire.
8:55Check.
9:00Taps.

learn more about daily life in a boarding school at:
http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html The Indian Boarding School Movement Carlisle "Kill the Indian...save the man" a phototour "Praying Towns" Day/Mission Schools "trickle down theory": Prevailing societal thought was that educated young indians would share 'civilized' ways with their parents. it was a failure by night. Reservation Boarding
Schools: children spent a week at school and were sent home home for the weekends. "Pratt's
bold new
experiment." http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/interactive_map.html Ojibwe student Merta Bercier wrote:

"Did I want to be an Indian? After looking at the pictures of the Indians on the warpath — fighting, scalping women and children, and Oh! Such ugly faces. No! Indians were mean people — I'm glad I'm not an Indian, I thought."

http://www.nativenewsnetwork.com/saginaw-chippewa-tribe-and-ziibiwing-center-release-boarding-school-curriculum.html For Teachers The Saginaw Chippewa Tribe and The Ziibiwing Center Release Boarding School Curriculum for 8th grade and up! Key Aspects/Programs Testimony 2 Testimony 3 Testimony 1 Reform Era Pipestone Passage from Pipestone Termination Era What will you make of history? "When I first started teaching here, that what we did...we were supposed to make you give up being Indian. Your songs and stories and language and dancing. Everything...It was a different time...a bad time...You kept your hope. And now, you have to take your hope and go somewhere where other people have hope...You're going to find more hope the farther and farther you walk away from this sad, sad, sad, reservation." Follow kids along their journey In 1945, Bill Wright, a Pattwin Indian, was sent to the Stewart Indian School in Nevada. He was just 6 years old. Wright remembers matrons bathing him in kerosene and shaving his head. Students at federal boarding schools were forbidden to express their culture — everything from wearing long hair to speaking even a single Indian word. Wright said he lost not only his language, but also his American Indian name.

"I remember coming home and my grandma asked me to talk Indian to her and I said, 'Grandma, I don't understand you,' " Wright says. "She said, 'Then who are you?' "

Wright says he told her his name was Billy. " 'Your name's not Billy. Your name's 'TAH-rruhm,' " she told him. "And I went, 'That's not what they told me.' " For More Analysis, Read Pratt's Entire Speech on the "Indian Problem" :

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4929/ primary source! Scroll in to view a typical day at a boarding school! Indian Boarding Schools a hands on history bill wright, 5th grade for more info. & to listen to the entire NPR report... http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865 John Collier: Commisoner of Indian Affairs 1933-1945 brought major change! Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
"Indian New Deal" For Teachers! Let your students think like historians analyzing primary sources! Practice DBQ (document based question) from the Stanford History Education Group: http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%2010_New%20Deal%20and%20World%20War%20II/New%20Deal%20SAC%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf *document E concerns the Indian New Deal! written by Adam Fortunate Eagle- leader of the 1969 occupation of Alcatraz
it is the story of his ten years at the Pipestone boarding school, after Collier's reforms were in place.
Controversially paints his boarding school experience in a positive light! Or Zoom in on each picture for each page of the full pdf and teaching plan! keep reading...
http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/boarding2.html But, what is Carlisle? The first of its kind, it was an industrial boarding school meant to 'civilize' Indian children.
The first school of the boarding school movement, it was a "model" for others.
Founded by Richard H. Pratt (A Calvary officer of Indian territories).
Built on a deserted military base, the school was modeled also modeled after the military and military life.
Pratt and former Indian prisoners recruited students from different tribes as the school's first students. Visit: http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/erdrich/boarding/carlisle.htm for more about Carlisle *pay special attention to the "school life" and "adjustment & response" sections! students at the carlisle indian insustrial school, circa 1900 "Carlisle Indian Industrial School History," http://home.epix.net/~landis/histry.html. Text: "'Kill the Indian, and Save the Man:' Capt. Richard H. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans," http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4929/. (accessed August 1, 2009). Tom Torlino, a Carlisle School student, before and after spending time at the school. A full photo gallery of Carlisle available at: Go ahead, take a look! http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/erdrich/boarding/gallery.htm Precursor to boarding schools. Began by reverend John Eliot in Massachussets.
Meant to christianize Indians. John Eliot's Rules of Conduct (8 additions to the Ten Commandments): like tangents? want to learn more about praying towns?
keep reading at the Nipmuc Indian Association of Connecticut Historical Series Site:

http://www.nativetech.org/Nipmuc/praytown.html ~Sherman Alexie
"The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian" Of course, history is what you make of it... http://archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.94814 this video was produced in 1953. After praising boarding schools, it finishes by suggesting all Indians be mainstreamed into public schools. in 1953, the government passed House concurrent resolution 108, the first of many individual severings of government ties with individual tribes. to view the entire newsreel: with the loss of federal recognition, came the loss of much needed federal funding. 1953-1964 tribes also lost, health care, police and firefighting services, and, yes, educational services (that means boarding schools) too. in some cases, the results were devastating, increasing already immense poverty. Our Spirits Don't Speak English: Indian Boarding School From the Rich-Heape Films Documentary:

http://www.richheape.com/boarding-school.htm For more on this documentary, or to order the full documentary visit: "Graduation day is May 18 and it's hard to believe my ten years at the boarding school are almost over...as Mrs. Fisher plays the processional on the piano, all 24 of us graduates climb up on the stage....the smiling faces of our teachersand staff members show their pride that they got another group of kids off to a good start on life. Then we sing our song, "Goodbye Pipestone," and it's like leaving my family all overs again." (Eagle 147) Intrigued? Read some more by clicking here: http://books.google.com/books?id=53tY3jh3QzAC&lpg=PP1&dq=pipestone&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=pipestone&f=false Adam Fortunate Eagle the government didn't realize that parents wouldn't stop teaching their children things at home... the government's next attempt to civilize indians encouraged much more dramatic change as the country embraced: Interview with:
JoAnn Tall
(Oglala Lakota) Read more about activist JoAnn Tall:
http://www.goldmanprize.org/1993/northamerica A term to explore: Did you find the answer? Brilliant! Click onward, my friend! and don't stop until you hit the next primary source! Not Quite? Try this: http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/boarding.html (click even if you didn't find it!) There's no sound...just watch. This timeline is meant to be a teaching resource. While the subject matter of
Indian Boarding Schools should and can be covered in history classes for all ages, the content of this resource is recommended for the high school level. Unfortunately for the settlers, praying towns didn't solve their "problem." Most towns disbanded after King Philip's War. They keep trying, however, but through a more modern means: Education. Critical Thinking Tip! As you move forward, ask yourself:
"Do I see any connections between praying towns & Indian education?

Are they similar, different, do they even matter? Does either have merit?

Do either of these relate to other movements or events in history?

Why might you have never learned about these topics before? Does this matter to me? What can you glean from this photo? What does it tell you about the experience and mindset of those who created the schools? Research= Time to Create... Through the eyes of Zitkala Sa... pros & cons Zitkala Sa/Gertrude Bonnin
Sioux writer, editor, musician,
teacher and political activist.


"Late in the morning, my friend Judewin gave me a terrible warning. Judewin knew a few words of English; and she had overheard the paleface woman talk about cutting our long, heavy hair. Our mothers had taught us that only unskilled warriors who were captured had their hair shingled by the enemy. Among our people, short hair was worn by mouners, and shingled hair by cowards!"......

I cried aloud, shaking my head all the while until I felt the cold blades of the scissors against my neck, and heard them gnaw off one of my thick braids. Then I lost my spirit". could you use this in your classroom? http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=atla&cc=atla&idno=atla0085-2&node=atla0085-2%3A1&view=image&seq=191&size=150 Remember your creations? Keep reading through Zitkala Sa's eyes. See any similarities? Remember Me? Do you still feel the same? 1. Make a list of the 10 things most important to you. (Think broadly, these 'items' may include ideas, traditions, people, phrases, etc.) 2. Return to the picture of Tom Torlino (featured in the Carlisle phototour) take a moment to note all of the changes between his 2 portraits. 3. Now imagine that you've been removed from your home. Using a medium of your choice (written work, music, film, visual art), express the person you would be without those 10 things indicated on your list. What is left of you? Can you rebuild? Because The Bureau of Indian Affairs issued directives that were followed by superintendents throughout the nation, all boarding schools had some similarities:
military style regimen
a strict adherence to English language only
an emphasis on farming
equally split academic and vocational training. http://www.sagchip.org/ziibiwing/planyourvisit/pdf/AIBSCurrGuide.pdf About the text: The text in pdf form!!! Resistance 1893 - Indian Education Act.
This Congressional Act made school attendance for Indian children compulsory and authorized the BIA to withhold rations and government annuities to parents who did not send their children to school. Give Yourself Context & Explore the Politics... Hop into another timeline and visit: http://americanindiantah.com/history/cron_entire_cron.html

Look at the legislation passed through the years. What common intent do you see, if any? Parents did not respond well to their childrens' forced schooling and removal from their homes. Many tried to resist sending their kids, teaching them to play 'hide and seek' with the Government Agents. Some parents went as far as to serve jail time for refusing to give up their children as officials tried to fill quotas, sending kids off to boarding schools. Explore pages 8, 9, and 14 for an overview.
(http://www.sagchip.org/ziibiwing/planyourvisit/pdf/AIBSCurrGuide.pdf) 19 Hopi Men Imprisoned on Alcatraz Now that you have an overview... Before Al Capone, Stroud, or "Machine Gun" Kelly. Alcatraz held a different set of men for the supposed "crime" of refusing to give up their children. Take a moment to learn about the 19 Hopis imprisoned there in 1895: http://www.thehistorychannelclub.com/articles/articletype/articleview/articleid/301/hopis-on-the-rock http://www.nps.gov/alca/historyculture/hopi-prisoners-on-the-rock.htm Some students indicated they had a positive experience and were grateful for the friendships, leadership, and vocational skills they learned . (See "Pipestone" section featured later...) Overall, however, even the government noted that there was:
poor diet
overcrowding
below-standard medical service
excessive labor by the students
substandard teaching http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html#boarding http://www.sagchip.org/ziibiwing/planyourvisit/pdf/AIBSCurrGuide.pdf saw himself as an ally, tried to institute positive changes: (meant assimilation was NO LONGER the goal of Indian educational policy!) Collier's reforms were short lived... ...by the 1950's, assimilation was once again the goal. Think Globally:

Why would America have returned to a policy of assimilation by the 1950's? http://www.nrcprograms.org/site/PageServer?pagename=aief_hist_1920

http://www.aihsc.info/education.htm Learn more about Collier to support your answer: learn more about termination: http://www.nrcprograms.org/site/PageServer?pagename=airc_hist_terminationpolicy Give your students a native perspective.
Checkout Stan Juneau's (Blackfoot Tribe) "A History and Foundation of American Indian Education Policy" published in conjunction with the Montana Office of Public Instruction. One More For Teachers! Full PDF: http://www.opi.mt.gov/pdf/IndianEd/resources/History_FoundationAmIndianPolicy.pdf secured and restored certain rights to Native Americans. Richard H. Pratt ~Richard H. Pratt Works Cited Alexie, Sherman. The Absolutely True Diary Of A Part-Time Indian. New York: Little, Brown, 2007. Print. "American Indian Civics Project: An Introductory and Curricular Guide for Educators." The Wild Rivers Teaching America History Project. The American Indian Civics Project. Web. 4 May 2013. The American Indian: Government Education. 1953. Newsreel. Internet Archive, New York City. Web. 4 May 2013. "American Indian Education Foundation Online." The 1920s: John Collier Leads Reform. American Indian Education Foundation. Web. 5 May 2013. "American Indian Heritage Support Center." Education: Indian Education and Boarding Schools. American Indian Heritage Support Center. Web. 7 May 2013. "An Indian Boarding School Photo Gallery." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. 5 May 2013. Bear, C. "American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many." National Public Radio Online. National Public Radio, 14 May 2008. Web. 1 May 2013. Eagle, Adam Fortunate. Pipestone, My Life at an Indian Boarding School. Oklahoma Press, 2010. Print. Hartmann, Ilka. Adam (Nordwall) Fortunate Eagle at Brooks Hall. 1973. Photograph. Ilka Hartmann Photography, San Francisco. Web. 5 May 2013. "History and Culture: The Termination Period 1953-1968." American Indian Relief Council. American Indian Relief Council. Web. 7 May 2013. "Hopi Prisoners on the Rock." National Park Services: Alcatraz Island. National Park Services, 14 Apr 2013. Web. 4 May 2013. "Indian Boarding Schools." Indian Country Diaries. Native American Public Telecommunications, n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. "Interactive Map ." Indian Country Diaries. Native American Public Telecommunications, n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. John Collier. N.d. Photograph. Parallels Between African Americans and Native Americans History. Web. 5 May 2013. Juneau, Stan. "A History and Foundation of American Indian Education Policy." Indian Education For All. (2001): 1-56. Print. Landis, Barbara. "About the Carlisle Indian Industrial School." Modern American Poetry. The University of Illinois, n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. Marr, C. J.. "Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwes." University of Washington University Libraries: Digital Collection. University of Washington, n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. Native News Network Staff. "Saginaw Chippewa Tribe and Ziibiwing Center Release Boarding School Curriculum." Native News Network: Connecting Native Voices. Native News Network. Web. 5 May 2013. "New Deal SAC Lesson Plan." Stanford History Education Group: Reading Like a Historian. Standford University, n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. "Our Spirits Don't Speak English: Indian Boarding Schools." Rice-Heape Films. Rice-Heape Films, Inc., n.d. Web. 7 May 2013. "Prize Recipient: JoAnn Tall." The Goldman Environmental Prize. Goldman Prize, n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. Richard H. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans." History Matters: U.S. Survey Courses Online. N.p.. Web. 5 May 2013. Richard Pratt. N.d. Photograph. The Wild Rivers Teaching America History Project. Web. 5 May 2013. Tara, P. "The "Praying Towns"." Nipmuc Indian Association of Connecticut. Nipmuc Indian Association of Connecticut Publications, n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. Sa, Zitkala. "Making of America: The School Days of an Indian Girl." Cornell University Library. Cornell University, 2013. Web. 5 May 2013. Ziibiwing Center of Anishinabe Culture & Lifeways. American Indian Boarding Schools: An Exploration of Global Ethnic, and Cultural Cleansing. Saginaw Chippewa Online, eBook. Quick, (insert your name here), get in! We've got to go back in time! Back, to the 1650's... Exploring As Europeans continued to settle in North America, it became increasingly apparent that the Indian population was an 'issue'.

Numbers of Native peoples had already dwindled since the arrival of the Europeans, but it just wasn't enough.

So, what was the solution to this issue of the "other" ?
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