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Geography Take 2

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by

Angela Zhang

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Geography Take 2

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
The Ural Mountains
The Alps
-stretches 750 miles long across 8 countries
The Pyrenees Mountains
GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE
1453-1815
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
-natural border separating France & Spain
-highest point is Mt. Aneto at 11,168 ft
-contains the Principality of Andorra
-many rivers (gaves) and waterfalls
-isolates the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) so they become closer to Africa compared to the rest of the Continent
-around 270 miles long from Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea
-highest peak is the 15,782 feet Mont Blanc at the French-Italian border
-resource of water for drinking, irrigation, power; minerals like bronze, gold, crystals, iron; plants for medicine; and some food
-has many passes used to cross for trade and war (Brenner, Great St. Bernard, Tenda, etc.)
-natural border between Europe and Asia
-
-divides Russia: 1/4 in Europe, 3/4 in Asia
-approximately 1,553 miles long from the Arctic River to northwestern Kazakhstan
-rich in metal ores, coal, and other minerals
-one of the world's oldest mountain ranges
-highest point is Mount Narodnaya at 6,217 ft (low because of age)
The English Channel
The Rhine River
The Danube River
The Mediterranean Sea
-1,785 miles long from Germany into the Black Sea (2nd longest in Europe)
-passes through 4 capital cities and 10 countries
Great Britain
always been more democratic than the Continent- Magna Carta, parliament, etc.
became most powerful country in terms of colonies (1544)
British philosophers at heart of the Enlightenment
geography made it ideal for birthplace of industrial revolution-became biggest economic country in Europe
People began moving to cities because of Industrial Revolution
1462: Ivan the Terrible was the most powerful king practicing Orthodox
1701-1721: The Great Northern War occurs with Russia (Peter the Great), Poland and Denmark against Sweden (Charles XII). Russia wins with Peace of Nystadt in 1721, obtaining Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia.
1768-1774: Russo-Turkish War occurs, which divided up Poland with Prussia and Austria.
1772-1775: During this time, Russia added Crimea, Ukraine, and Belarus, adding 200,000 square miles to Russian territory.
1600 - 4.4 Million
1700 - 5.0 Million
1751 - 5.8 Million
1761 - 6.2 Million
Napoleon Bonaparte conquered most of Western Europe in less than a decade
Napoleonic Wars- 1803-1804
Wars started between France and Britain, but sucked in the rest of Europe quickly
When Napoleon was banished to St. Helena, the French Republic and his institutions dissipated and the Bourbon dynasty came back into power
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
France

the Holy Roman Empire had many territorial losses and gains over the years
it gradually disintegrated into independent states after the 30 Year's War and other losses of central power
Napoleon conquered most of Western Germany during his reign, turning its states into the "Confederation of the Rhein" (Rhine)
turned into the German Confederation in 1815
-Napoleon used the Great Saint Bernard Pass to cross the Alps into Italy in 1800
Holy Roman Empire (Germany)
-He wanted to reinforce the troops in Italy and take back land that the Austrians seized
had many revolutions in their history (1789, 1830, 1848)
Louis XIV and other absolutists drove France into bankruptcy
glory days during Napoleonic Era and with imperial power
Philosophes at heart of Enlightenment along with British philosophers
-painted by Jacques-Louis David between 1801-1805
Southern Europe
Religion
known as being very catholic but some bumps in the road
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
Henry of Navarre - Edict of Nantes (1598)
returned to extreme Catholicism during Absolutist Era
Edict of Fontainebleau (1685) - 200,000+ Protestants left France
mass exodus cost France smart, hardworking people
has a large Muslim population from colonialization
Central Europe
Napoleon's Reign
Mountains in the Balkans
Congress of Vienna - Nov. 1814 to Jun. 1815
-covered by many mountain ranges including the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria and Serbia), Rhodope Mountains (Bulgaria, Macedonia & Greece), and Pindus Mountains (Greece and Albania)
-contains the Mount Olympus seen in Greek mythology
-the rugged landscape makes it
hard for transportation and communication to develop, resulting in isolated countries with hostilities between them
Daily Life In 15th Century Europe
most Europeans relied on agriculture to survive
Peasants lived in villages
Ottoman Empire
Duties:
Men were head of the household
Women looked after the animals, sold goods at the market, brewed ale (most drank ale/beer since water was not clean), and made clothes for the children
Most of their life revolved around the church
-people often visited shrines of saints
The Ottoman Empire encroached on the former Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The Battle of Mohacs occurred in 1526 between King Louis of Hungary and Suleiman the Magnificent of the Turks. The Turks moved as far as Hungary and Austrian border, but repulsed in 1529.
Religion
European missionaries and explorers spread Catholicism
The Black Plague
The Thirty Years' War 1618-1648
-Peace of Westphalia
United Provinces recognized as an independent union and called the Dutch Republic
allowed the 300+ German states to choose their own religion, politics and religion now considered separate matters
-caused many lower class people to rebel in many parts of the Continent due to many reasons such as high taxation. (1590-1640)
1464 - About 40,000 people died in Paris
1471 - 10-15% of English population dies

1603 - Black plague kills 58,000 Londoners
1629-1631 - 1.7 Itallians dead because of plague
1636 - Plague breaks out in London again
1665 - Last plague in London

Life expectancy in 17th Century: 38
France's Religions:
-Protestant
-Huguenot

English Religions:
-Very Protestant
-Anglican
Russia's Religions:
Orthodox
Population Changes
Basic Information
Language: Indo-European Germanic
Religion: Anglican since 1534
Government: Constitutional Monarchy with Parliament
Economy: Mixed Market
after the sack of Rome in 1527, Central Europe became dominant over Italy
Spain and Portugal were huge colonial powers
a mass of non-unified city states until 1860
Germany, Poland, and Austria mostly
ruled by Holy Roman Empire (962-1806)
weakened after 30 Year's War
Prussia and Austria emerged as dominant powers
Austro-Prussian Wars
taken over by Napoleon
Belgium was really only country to industrialize until after 1815
The church had maintained it's power up until
the Protestant Reformation, when the Church began to show its corruption with indulgences and such.
The Enlightenment furthered this loss of power by supporting more rational ways of thinking and leaving behind the "it is God's doing" philosophy. For most countries, the state took the power the Church was losing which led to more democratic forms of government.
D
-meadows and pastures in the valleys provide food for livestock
United Kingdom
Treaty of Union in 1707 united Scotland and England to create Great Britain
the Anglo-Scottish border of Scotland and England runs for 96 miles between the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west
conflict over land between France, the Netherlands, Rhineland, Spain, and Italy
The 2nd Habsburg-Valois War occurred in 1527-1529
HRE Charles V went against Francis I of France and Pope Clement VII.
In April 1527 Charles V obtained Rome, controlling much of Italy by 1530. This was also when Clement VII started working under Charles V.
Under King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile
attacked Granada in the 10-year-long Castillian War and united the kingdom
expelled all Jews from Spain-affected them economically since most Jews were merchants
took back lands for Spain as well as cultural and religious power
considered the last of the medieval wars
France won the battle of Castillion on July 17, 1453-regained a substantial amount of land from the English
ended in 1453
Hundred Years War
The Great Northern War
Habsburg-Valois Wars (1494-1559)
-separates the United Kingdom from the Continent
-350 miles long joining the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean
-significant to the failed invasions of Britain (like the Spanish Armada in 1588)
-England became a naval superpower in order to defend itself as an island
-trade ports on both sides of channel
Population Changes

fought between Charles XII of Sweden and a coalition led by Peter the Great of Russia (Russia, Denmark, and Saxony-Poland)
Augustus II (Saxony-Poland) wanted to conquer Livonia and remove Sweden's economic foothold on the Baltic
Peter the Great wanted a foothold in the Baltic as a move towards greatness in Western Europe-Sweden was too preeminent and possessed Karelia, Ingria and Estonia which blocked Russia's advance to the west
the coalition believed that Sweden would be easy to defeat and its territory could be easily divided up
by 1718, Charles XII lost most of the land of Sweden to Russia
-flows 766 miles from the eastern Swiss Alps to the North Sea coast in the Netherlands
The Four Treaties of the Great Northern War
Prussia
In 1540 Duchy of Milan is taken over by Philip II of Spain. At that time, Florence, Papal states and Venice were independent.
The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) from the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) makes the Austrians (Habsburgs) rule more of Italy. They took Milan, Mantua, Sardinia, and Naples.
In 1743 the Bourbons of Spain controls Naples and Sicily.
Religion
North is Protestant, South is Catholic
Hussite Wars (1419-34)
Luther's 95 Theses (1517)
30 Year's War (1618-48)-religious freedom for Protestants
Sweden
Ethnicity: German
-source of hydroelectricity, drinking water, transportation, trade, irrigation, and fish
The Balkans
Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Kosovo, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Turkey
Ethnicity: Slavic
Religion: Orthodox Christian and Islam
Constantinople fell in 1453
mostly ruled by Ottoman Turks
-forms northern border of the Balkans
-served as border between the Austrians and Ottomans
-center of the Holy Roman Empire
-important for carrying trading goods inland
1500 - 15.0 to 18.0 Million
1550 - 16.0 Million
1580 - 20.0 Million
1600 - 20.0 Million
1670 - 18.0 Million
1700 - 21.0 Million
1715 - 19.2 Million
1740 - 24.6 Million
1775 - 25.0 Million
1789 - 27.6 Million
1801 - 27.5 Million
1810 - 29.3 Million
Population Changes
-lords during the era of feudalism built forts and castles along the river which served as defense, later used as toll booths for trade
-basis of many borders and border struggles (between France and Germany/Holy Roman Empire)
Religion: Orthodox Christian
Ethnicity: Slavic
Ivan the Terrible expanded Russia eastward after he took the title of czar
he died in 1598 which created a period of anarchy known as the time of troubles
Peter the Great took over in 1689
westernized Russia in an attempt to make it more powerful
strengthened its army
His reforms helped women
Catherine the Great took over in 1762
wanted to help the lower classes but ended up giving it to the nobility
Pugachev rebellion - 1773
rebellion failed, ruined life for peasants
Religion: Protestant
-connects Africa, Europe and southwestern Asia
-970,000 square miles
-coast of 21 modern countries
-important for exchange of culture and goods as well as travel
-the Ottoman Empire's power crossed the sea from the Balkans toward North Africa
during the 16th century Sweden broke ties with Denmark and emerged as an independent state
Gustavus Adolphus was a great military leader and conquered a lot of lands
Charles XI weakened the nobility and built Sweden to being powerful in northern Europe
By 1718 Charles XII had lost most of Sweden's empire to Russia
After Charles XII died the swedish nobility gained control
Eventually King Gustavus III took the throne and encouraged trade.
-contains many islands (Sicily, Cyprus, Crete, Corsica, etc)
Northern Europe (Scandinavia)
Eastern Europe
Western Europe
Russia
out of every 100 live births, on average, two babies died in 24 hours of birth, three died in the first week, and four in the first month
Italy
Ethnicity: Latin
Religion: Catholic
Population Changes
1690 - 12.5 Million
1700 - 11.0-16.5 Million
1770 - 14.7 Million
1798 - 16.3 Million
1800 - 17.2 Million
1816 - 18.4 Million
Hungary
1700 - 3.0 Million
1800 - 8.0 Million
Czech Republic
1754 - 3.0 Million
1780 - 4.5 Million
Poland
1580 - 8.0 Million
1648 - 11.0 Million
1667 - 7.0 Million
1700 - 8.0 Million
1721 - 6.0 Million
1771 - 11.0 Million
1815 - 2.6 Million
"Last of the Religious Wars"
At the Start
-massive Sweden
-no unified England
-loose Holy Roman Empire
-Poland-Lithuania Empire
-Ottoman Empire
-United Provinces
Results
-settled border disputes that had risen during the Napoleonic Wars
-reconstructed Europe and set most of the borders seen in modern Europe
1700-1721
Caused by Land Struggles
c. 1600
HRE Religions:
-Catholic (west)
-Protestant (east)
1771 - 6.5 Million
1787 - 7.0 Million
1791 - 7.7 Million
Reconquista (early 700s to 1492)
The Hohenzollerns get land near the Rhine valley in 1609, and Brandenburg-Prussia is created.
In the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) Prussia took over Silesia from the Austrians.
In 1772, Prussia took part of Poland, connecting the two sections of Prussia. They later took over Poland 2 more times with Austria and Russia in 1793 and 1795.
Italy
The Balkans, Spain, Portugal, and Italy
The Balkans have a Slavic ethnicity
Spain, Portugal, and Italy are Latin and Catholic
Latin or Germanic ethnicity
mainly the United Kingdom, France, and Ireland

-The Final Act was signed a few days before the Battle of Waterloo, some changes include:
a unified Italy
a German Confederation of 38 states created from the previous 360 of the Holy Roman Empire
Russia given The Duchy of Warsaw (Poland)
the Netherlands united into a constitutional monarchy
Switzerland officially neutral
Papal states under the rule of the pope
freedom of navigation guaranteed for rivers such as the Rhine and Danube.
Results
Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Iceland
Germanic ethnicity and language
everything East of Poland and North of Romania
Slavic Ethnicity and Orthodox Christianity
1750 - 23.0 Million
Before 1789 to 25.0 Million
1795 - 29.0 Million
1800 - 35.5 Million
1810 - 45.0 Million
1500 - 6.0 Million
1550 - 11.0 Million
1600 - 13.0 to 15.0 Million
1650 - 15.0 Million
1722 - 14.0 Million
Population Changes
-Latin ethnicity and language
Franco-Spanish War (1648-1659)
-continuation of the 30 Year's War
-Cardinal Richelieu declared war on Spain because France was surrounded by Habsburgs
-ended with the Peace of Pyrenees in 1659 between Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain, made more than 300 states of the HRE independent.
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