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Web Accessibility

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on 15 June 2015

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Transcript of Web Accessibility

Other Advantages
Web Accessibility
So, what does web accessibility mean?
Put simply, Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the web.
Hearing
Cognitive
Visual
Motor
YouTube video produced by FaHCSIA
So, how can you help?
By making some small changes to the way you create and present information you can help to make the websites more accessible.
Use correct heading styles
Add alternate text to all images
Make hyperlinks informative
Maps and charts
Tables - when and how to use them
Lists
provide a summary or descriptive overview for images of text
W3C web accessibility initiative
www.w3.org/WAI
References
Most people today can hardly imagine life without the internet.
It provides access to news, email, shopping, and entertainment at any hour of the day or night.
A meaningful page title describes the content of the page using as few words as possible.
A page title called '2013' or

'at a glance'

does not tell the user what to expect from that page !
The title of the web page acts as a page identifier for screen reader users,
this means they can quickly find out what information the page contains
Page titles should be meaningful
This is an example of a meaningful page title
Structure
Headings must be created using the h1-h6 code only.
(h1 followed by h2, h2 followed by h3 etc.) do not skip levels and only have one h1 for a page (the main content heading).
Do NOT use text formatting, such as
Using headings to organise content increases the readability of pages.
headings are a short description of the content on the page
Page titles should be unique
Each page on the websites should have unique titles.
For example, each CFN page has a unique title, viz. "Search By S/w", "Compare Images", etc.
Provide unique and accurate titles to all pages of the website
Layout tables
Unordered lists should be used when there is no order of sequence or importance.
Lists should never be used for merely indenting or other layout purposes.
Lists convey a hierarchical content structure
Ordered lists suggest a progression or sequence. A list of seven items or more should be an ordered list
Lists should be used correctly and for the right purposes.
Images
each heading should be unique.
There are two basic uses for tables on the web:
A table is a data table when row headers, column headers, or both are used.
For example, here is a simple data table:
table caption
table header
If using layout tables, content must make sense when linearised. i.e. Heading and list in the same cell instead of different cells for each item.
column heading
cell content
Layout tables are used to position content and should not use table headers
Here is a simple layout table:
Screen readers announce tabular information row by row (rather than column by column)
Heading 2 used instead of table heading
Complex tables
avoid using complex tables
Complex data tables are tables with multiple columns or rows containing header cells.
Complex data tables are difficult to read and interpret for many users, including users of screen readers and those with cognitive disabilities.
The information below is an example of a complex data table.
A link should describe to the user exactly what they should expect when they click on that link.
When adding a link in WordPress use the ‘title’ field to provide extra information about the link.
this is the URL for the link
this is where you add the title of the link
Now, at the click of a mouse,
the world can be "at your fingertips“……
in other words, if you don't have a disability of any kind
Making documents accessible
Web accessibilility Checklist
Alternative text provides a textual alternative to images.
Every image needs a text alternative (alt text)
If an image is not used to convey a message e.g. is only decorative then the image should have an empty alternative text value (alt="")
Avoid words like "picture of," "image of," or "link to."
This is how the image looks on the website
This is how the image looks with images turned off and the description the screen reader will read
Provide descriptions of each map. The description should include the information below the map (legend items, notes etc.) and also a descriptive overview of the map (it is not possible to describe all details on the map in a text version).
Images of text may pose difficulties to users who need to customise text features (such as colour or size) and to screen magnifier users as they tend to blur when zoomed in.
Strong Business Case
Accessibility overlaps with other best practices such as :
mobile web design
device independence
multi-modal interaction
usability
design for older users
search engine optimization (SEO)
List goes on...
Accessibility starts with a properly formatted Word document.
Documents can be made accessible by:
1.Including paragraph headings.
2.Providing descriptions for images.
3.Providing descriptions for charts and graphs.
4.Providing descriptions for tables.
5.Identifying column headings in tables.
6.Using phrases to describe hyperlinks.
7.Grouping items in lists.
Simulations
To help you to understand what it is like for people with disabilities to use the web, we will look at the following screen reader simulation.
Screen reader simulation- WebAIM http://webaim.org/simulations/screenreader-sim.htm
that is,
if you can use a mouse...
and see the screen...
and hear the audio.....
headings should be clear and informative
font,
or
BOLD
to give the visual appearance of headings
size
as data tables
or
as layout tables
Every link should make sense if the link text is read by itself.
Screen reader users may choose to read only the links on a web page. Certain phrases like "click here" and "more" must be avoided.
It is especially helpful for people who are blind and rely on a screen reader to have the content of the website read to them.
Alt text should convey the content and function, not necessarily a description, of an image
Use the fewest number of words necessary.
In general, for all images that communicate a large amount of information, long textual descriptions must be provided in addition to the short alt text. Ideally this description should be displayed next to the image.
If the same information is already available on another page of the website, add a link to such page.
Alternatively, a link to a separate page containing the description can be provided.
Blah
BLAH
Blah
WebAIM
www.webaim.org
Cisco Accessibility Initiative (
http://iwe.cisco.com/web/accessibility
)
Accessibility Checklist
As per the WCAG 2.0
Case studies show that accessible
websites also have:
better search results
reduced maintenance costs
increased audience reach
Law Compliance
Strong Business Case
Accessibility overlaps with other best practices such as :
mobile web design
device independence
multi-modal interaction
usability
design for older users
search engine optimization (SEO)
List goes on...
Blah
BLAH
Blah
Case studies show that accessible
websites also have:
better search results
reduced maintenance costs
increased audience reach
Federal and State Laws
Cisco complies with the:
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act

and is a key contributor to accessibility standards and guidelines created by
the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
and others.
Full transcript